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Упр. 10. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.




АРТИКЛЬ

Запомните следующие правила.

Перед каждым нарицательным существитель­ным должен стоять артикль.

Если вы не употребляете перед существитель­ным артикль, вы должны уметь объяснить, по­чему.

Артикль не употребляется, если перед существи­тельным стоит притяжательное или указатель­ное местоимение, другое существительное в притяжательном падеже, количественное числи­тельное или отрицание "по" (не "not").

Упр. 1. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

  1. This is ... book. It is my ... book. 2. Is this your ... pencil? — No, it isn't my ... pencil, it is ray sister's ... pencil. 3. I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... engineer. My sister's ... husband is ... doctor. 4. I have no ... handbag. 5. Is this ... watch? — No, it isn't ... watch, it's ... pen. 6. This ... pen is good, and that ... pen is bad. 7. I can see ... pencil on your ... table, but I can see no ... paper. 8. Give me ... chair, please. 9. They have ... dog and two ... cats. 10. I have ... spoon in my ... plate, but I have no ... soup in it.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем пе­ред ним неопределенный артикль а(аn

).Упоми­ная этотже предмет вторично, мы ставим пе­ред ним определенный артикль the.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

Упр. 2. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... tree. ... tree is green. 2. I can see three ... boys. ... boys are playing. 3. I have ... bicycle. ... bicycle is black. My ... friend has no ... bicycle. 4. Our ... room is large. 5. We wrote ... dictation yesterday. ... dictation was long. 6. She has two ... daughters and one ... son. Her ... son is ... pupil. 7. My ... brother's ... friend has no ... dog. 8. This ... pencil is broken. Give me that ... pencil, please. 9. She has ... ball. ... ball is ... big. 10. I got ... letter from my ... friend yesterday. ... letter was interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употреб­ляться только с исчисляемыми существитель­ными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или суще­ствительными во множественном числе неопре­деленный артикль опускается. Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

исчисляемое в единственном числе

This is S meat. The meat is fresh.

неисчисляемое

These are S books. The books are good.

множественное число

Упр. 3. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... pen. ... pen is red. 2. These are pencils. ... pencils are black. 3. This is ... soup. ... soup is tasty. 4. In the morning I eat ... sandwich and drink ... tea. 5. She gave me ... coffee and ... cake. ... coffee was hot. ... cake was tasty. 6. Do you like ... ice-cream? 7. I see ... book in your ... hand. Is ... book interesting? 8. She bought... meat, ... butter and ... potatoes yesterday. She also bought ... cake. ... cake was very ... tasty. We ate ... cake with ... tea. 9. This is my ... table. On ... table I have ... book, two ... pencils, ... pen and ... paper. 10. This is ... bag. ... bag is brown. It is my sis­ter's ... bag. And this is my ... bag. It is ... yellow.

Запомните следующие словосочетания, в кото­рых артикль не употребляется:

at S school at S home at S work

Упр. 4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I have two ... sisters. My ... sisters are ... students. 2. We are at ... home. 3. My ... brother is not at ... home, he is at ... school. 4. My ... mother is at ... work. She is ... doctor. 5. I am not ... doctor. 6. I have no'... sister. 7. He is not ... pilot. 8. I have thirty-two ... teeth. 9. He has ... child. 10. She has two ... children. Her children are at ... school. 11. Is your father at ... home? — No, he is at ... work. 12. Where is your ... broth­er? — He is at ... home.

Если перед существительным употребляется прилагательное, оно стоит между артиклем и су­ществительным.

E.g. This is a book. This is a good book.

Упр 5. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. We have ... large ... family. 2. My granny often tells us ... long ... interesting .. stories. 3. My ... father is ... engineer. He works at ... factory. ... factory is large. 4. My ... mother is ... doctor. She works at ... large ... hospital. She is at ... work now. 5. My ... aunt is ... teacher. She works at ... school. ... school is good. My ... aunt is not at ... school now. She is at ... home. She is drinking ... tea and eating ... jam. ... jam is sweet. I am at ... home, too. I am drinking ... tea and eating ... sandwich. ... sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at ... school. She is ... pupil. 7. My cousin has ... big ... black ... cat. My cousin's ... cat has two ... kittens. ... milk, too. cat likes ... milk. ... kittens like

Упр. 6. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I am ... engineer. 2. My ... son is ... pupil. 3. He is ... good ... pupil. 4. This is ... house. 5. This is my ... pencil. 6. You have some ... pen­cils, but I have no ... pencil. Give me ... pencil, please. 7. I like your ... beautiful ... flower. Give me ... flower, please. 8. My ... mother is at ... home. She is reading ... interesting ... book. 9. My ... father is not at ... home. He is at ... work. He is ... doctor. He is ... good ... doctor. He works at ... hospital. ... hospital is large.

Часто, даже упоминая предмет впервые, мы тем j не менее употребляем перед ним определенный артикль:

а) если упоминаемый предмет является един­ственным в мире

E.g. The sun is shining brightly.

в) если этот предмет является определенным по ситуации

E.g. Put the book on the table.

Упр. 7. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. What's ... weather like today? — ... weather is fine. 2. ... sun is yellow. 3. ... sky is grey today. 4. ... earth is ... planet. 5. We had ... English lesson yesterday. ... teacher asked me many ... questions. ... questions were difficult.

4. Where is your ... brother? — He is at ... home. He is in his ... room. He is sitting at ... table. He is doing his ... homework. ... homework is difficult. 5. Our ... cat is sitting on ... sofa. 6. It is very dark in ... room. Turn on ... light, please. 7. Nick went into ... bathroom, turned on ... water and washed his ... hands.

Упр. 8. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... good ... book. Take ... book from ... table. Put this ... book into ... bookcase. 2. ... weath­er is fine today. ... sky is blue. ... sun is shining brightly in ... blue ... sky. 3. This is ... boy. ... boy is at... school. He is ... pupil. This ... boy is my ... brother's ... friend. He has ... cat, but he has no ... dog. He likes his ... cat. He gives ... cat ... milk every day. 4. Yesterday I received ... letter from my ... friend. ... letter was interesting. 5. We live in... big house. I like ... house very much. 6. Are you ... worker? — No, I am ... student.

Кроме того существует огромное количество так называемых "застывших словосочетаний," в ко­торых артикль употребляется или отсутствует традиционно. Эти словосочетания приходится заучивать наизусть.

Запомните следующие конструкции.

There is a ... Where is the ... ?

Запомните также следующие предложения:

The (book) is on the (table). Ho: The (book) is on a little (table)1

Упр. 9. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. Where is ... cat? —.. cat is on ... sofa. 2. Where is ... book? — .. book is on ... shelf. 3. Where are ... flowers? — ... flowers are in ...beautiful vase. 4. Where is.. vase? — ... vase is on ... little table near ... window. 5. Open ... win­dow, please. ... weather is fine today. I can see ... sun in ... sky. I can see ... nice little bird. ... bird is sitting in ... big tree. ... tree is green. 6. There is ... little white cloud in ... sky. 7. We have ... large room. There is ... big sofa in ... room and ... little lamp on ... wall over ... sofa. I like to sit on ... sofa and read ... good book.

1 Существительное, стоящее в скобках, может быть любым. Прилагательное также может быть любым. Вместо предлога "on" может быть любой другой предлог иди заменяющее его слово­сочетание, напр, "in front of".

Запомните следующее застывшее словосочета­ние:

in S front

Упр. 10. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. Where is ... soup? — ... soup is in ... big saucepan on ... gas-cooker. 2. Where are ... cut­lets? — ... cutlets are in ... refrigerator on ... lit­tle plate. 3. There is no ... bread on ... table. Where is ... bread? 4. There is ... little brown coffee-table in our ... room in ... front of ... sofa. 5. Where is ... table in your ... room? 6. There is ... thick carpet on ... floor in my mother's ... room. 7. Is your brother at ... home? — No, he is at ... work. He works at ... big factory. He is ... engineer. 8. My sister has many ... books. ... books are in ... big bookcase. 9. ... weather is fine today. Let's go and play in ... yard. There are many ... children in ... yard. They are playing with ... ball.

Запомните следующие конструкции, требующие неопределенного артикля:

I have a ... This is a ... I am а... Не has а ... That is а ... Не is а ... I see а ... It is а ... She is а ...

There is а ...





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