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Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и й м а т е р и а л


Времена группы Perfect

Past Perfect Tense. Future Perfect Tense


Past Perfect Tense


Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I had asked He had asked Had I asked? Had he asked? I had not asked He had not asked


Past Perfect Tense употребляется для выражения действия, совершившегося к определенному моменту в прошлом. Этот момент может быть выражен:


а) обстоятельством с предлогом by - к (by the end of the year, by the 1-st of May, etc.)

The students had passed their credit-tests and exams by January, 1.

Студенты сдали зачеты и экзамены к первому января.


б) другим действием в прошлом, выраженным глаголом в Past Indefinite.

She had finished school before she entered the university.

Она окончила школу, прежде чем поступила в университет.

Запомните:Глаголы в Past Perfect Tense переводятся на русский язык глаголами прошедшего времени совершенного вида.

Future Perfect Tense


Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I shall have asked He will have asked Shall I have asked? Will he have asked? I shall not have asked He will not have asked


Обратите внимание:

а) при образовании вопросительной формы перед подлежащим ставится только первыйвспомогательный глагол;

б) при образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица notставится после первого вспомогательного глагола.

Future Perfect Tense употребляется для выражения действия, которое завершится к определенному моменту в будущем. Этот момент может быть выражен:

а) обстоятельством с предлогом by - к (by 6 o’clock, by the beginning of the week, etс.)

They will have tested this apparatus by the end of the month.

Они проведут испытания этого аппарата к концу месяца.

б) другим действием, относящимся к будущему, с глаголом в Present Perfect или в Present Indefinite Tense.

Помните! В придаточных предложениях времени и условия будущее время не употребляется.

We shall have finished the experiment before you come.

Мы закончим эксперимент до Вашего приезда (до того, как Вы приедете).

Запомните! Глаголы в Future Perfect Tense переводятся на русский язык глаголами будущего времени совершенного вида.


Функции слова one. (The functions of one)


Числительное - один Неопределенно-личное местоимение Слово-заместитель для замены упомянутого ранее существительного
There is only one solution of this problem. Существует только одно решение этой задачи. One should take the precautions mentioned. Следует соблюдать указанные меры предосторожности. This method is a conventional one. Этот метод является общепринятым методом.

Примечание. Слово-заместитель принимает форму ones, если заменяет существительное во множественном числе.

Словообразование. Приставка re-

(Word –building. The prefix re-)

Приставка re- указывает на повторность действия. Например:

to construct – строить

to reconstruct – перестраивать


to produce – производить

to reproduce - воспроизводить

E x e r c i s e s


I. Analyze the use of the Perfect Forms. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. I was sure I had never seen that man before. 2.No one had finished his work by the appointed time. 3. When we reached the house the windows were dark as everybody had gone to bed. 4. After they had left the room together he sat in front of the fire for a long time thinking about them. 5. She opened the door only after I had told her who I was and what I wanted. 6. They had prepared everything by 4 o’clock.



1. Don’t come for the article at 6 o’clock. We shall not have finished it by that time. 2. I am sure we shall have prepared everything when you return. 3. If you don’t hurry, the train will have gone by the time you reach the station. 4. By the time you make up your mind to tell him about it he’ll have heard of everything from somebody else. 5. They will have read the first chapter of the book by the end of the week.


II. Change the following sentences into interrogative and negative:

1. He had translated the article by Thursday. 2. The secretary had sent all the faxes off when he came. 3. When we got to the hall, the concert had started. 4. When I entered the room, the telephone had stopped ringing. 5. He had greatly enlarged his vocabulary by the end of the first term. 6. They had passed all the exams by January the 25th. 7. She will have done the job by the beginning of the week. 8. By the time I arrive he’ll have explained the problem in detail. 9. We’ll have arranged everything necessary before the delegation arrives. 10. They’ll have completed the construction by the end of May.


III. Use "had" or "shall/will have".

1. When we came to the station the train ... left. 2. Her friend ... waited for her till 5 o'clock and then left. 3. When I walked in Sam ... left the room. 4. We ... finished all preparations by the time the guests come. 5. He ... had a terrible day and looked very tired. 6. We hope they ... landed safely in Paris by that time. 7. She ... forgotten all about him by the time he returns. 8. The taxi ... arrived before we were ready. 9. At last I learnt what ... happened to him. 10. By the end of last month they ... not completed the experiment yet. 11. She ... left the house before you return.

IV. Use "after," "when," "by," "by the time," "before," "until":

1. My parents had eaten the dinner ... I got home. 2. He had been a worker ... he became a businessman. 3. It will have grown completely dark ... 8 o'clock. 4. Bill had already left ... we got there. 5. ... the guests had left I went to bed. 6. ... she gets the letter, he will have been far away. 7. Where did your sister work ... she had graduated from the Institute? 8. Her eyes were red ... she had cried. 9. I had never seen any of Turner's paintings ... I visited the art museum. 10. ... the end of next year her son will have finished school. 11. The train hadn't left yet ... they came to the station. 12. Ann hadn't come to Paris ... the end of May. 13. I went to the chemist's ... I had visited my sick friend. 14. Nick had studied French ... he entered the University. 15. She hadn't been able to swim... he taught her. 16.I had seen a new Italian film ... the news. 17. She went to London... she had learned English. 18. They had been studying at the University for two years ... the war broke out. 19. They won't have left the town ... you send them a fax. 20.I hope ... the end of the winter I'll have learned to ski.


V. Combine the sentences using Past Perfect and conjunctions "after," "before," "when," "by the time," "until".

Model: The librarian came back. Peter looked through the magazine. — When (by the time) the librarian came back Peter had looked through the magazine.

1. My friend called on me. I had my breakfast. 2. We went out into the street. The rain stopped. 3. The students reached the camp. The sun set. 4. My father left for the airport. We bought the tickets. 5. Nelly arrived. I baked the cake. 6. I came to her place. She translated the texts. 7. She got home. The table was laid. 8. We got there. She left. 9. He went home. He finished work. 10. John came home. The family had supper. 11. They got married. Her parents gave their consent. 12. We did not disturb him. He finished writing his report. 13. Mother switched off the TV. The film was over. 14.I didn't answer his letter. I received another letter from him. 15.I turned on the light. It got dark. 16. The boat sailed. The lava hit the town. 17. The rescue team took the child out. The house collapsed. 18. The police came. The robber didn't leave the bank.


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