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Запомните значение сочетания





however that may be — как бы то ни было

Упражнение

Переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на ус­тупительные предложения:

1. Important as this question is in itself, the debate on
the subject went far beyond its original bounds.

2. Strange as it may seem, sulphur dioxide may act as a
reducing agent or as an oxidizing agent.

3. Small though it is, the proportion of natural plutonium
is apparently greater than it can be thus accounted for.

4. Enormous as this prodigious flow of energy is, we do
not know the manner of its coming.

5. Whatever these consideration may appear at first glance
they are of great practical importance.

 

6. Wherever "a craze intersects the surface perturbation
or discontinuity results.

7. Whoever the author may have been he should have
dwelt on this problem. .

Двойное отрицание

Отрицание not в сочетании с отрицательной пристав­кой прилагательного или наречия усиливает любые чле­ны предложения, кроме подлежащего и дополнения. Та­кое сочетание перед прилагательным или наречием обычно переводится довольно, весьма, вполне:

The case is not improbable.

Этот случай довольно (весьма, вполне) вероятен.

Wherever может иметь значение всякий раз, когда.


Упражнение

Переведите следующие предложения. Укажите отрицательные пре­фиксы:

1. Mars and Venus have atmospheres not dissimilar to
ours.

2. River and lake deposits also not uncommonly contain
remains of organisms which inhabited waters.

3. It seems not at all unlikely that many of the lower
animal forms also have the power to make a similar
distinction.

4. The advances of modern sciences in the production of
a wide range of experimental temperatures are thus seen to
be not inconsiderable.

5. Эмфатическое сочетание it is ... that (which, who)

А. Сочетания it is... that, it is., which, it is... who могут выделять любой заключенный между компонентами этого сочетания член предложения, кроме сказуемого. Предложения такого типа — сложноподчиненные по форме, но простые по содержанию. Дополнительный акцент на слове или группе слов (эмфаза) в русском языке передается или словом именно, или порядком слов: то, что выделяется рамочной конструкцией it is... that, ставится в конец предложения:

It is these properties of crystals that are the most important. Именно эти свойства кристаллов наиболее важны. Наиболее важны эти свойства кристаллов.

Признаком того, что that — часть эмфатического обо­рота, является возможность убрать рамочную конструк­цию it is... that без искажения смысла предложения, лишь сняв эмфазу. Приведенный выше пример примет вид:



These properties of crystals are the most important. Эти свойства кристаллов наиболее важны.

Б. Одним из вариантов эмфатической конструкции с сочетанием it is.. that является выделение обстоятель­ства времени, которому предшествует эмфатическое со-


четание not until. Сочетание it was not until ... that не переводится, а перед выделяемым обстоятельством вре­мени добавляются слова только, только после, только тогда, когда:

It was not until 1953 that this book was published. Эта книга была опубликована только в 1953 году.

It was not until Reontgen discovered X-rays that scientists began to take interest in this subject.

Только тогда, когда Рентген открыл Х-лучи, ученые начали интересоваться этим вопросом.

Упражнение

Переведите следующие предложения, выделяя эмфатические со­четания it is... that (who, which) и it is not until... that:

1. It is these special properties of sound that are the
subject of the present chapter.

2. It was the Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens, who
first offered an explanation for the phenomena.

3. It was not until about 1911 that a first really successful
theory of atomic structure was suggested by Rutherford.

4. It was not until Einstein discovered the connection
between gravitation and inertia that the mystery Newton
could not understand was solved.

5. Radioactive phenomena occur within the nucleus, and
it is here that mass and positive charge resides.

6. A solenoid carrying a current behaves just like a magnet.
It was the great French physicist Ampere who first showed
this to be the case.

7. It is just energy which the atom thus yields up that is
held to account for the radiation.

Повторение эмфатических конструкций

У пра жнение

Переведите следующие предложения. Определите, какими спосо­бами в них выделен тот или иной член предложения:

I

1. Not only did the newly discovered electron provide an entity which was assumed to be a constituent of all atoms, but it also provided a natural unit of electric charge.


2. Positrons have only a short period of existence after
their formation. It is for this reason that the positive electron
had proved so difficult to detect.

3. Incomplete though these figures are, they give
more information in several respects than has before been
available.

4. Satisfactory as this theory may be in many respects it
is far from being probable.

5. Not all substances separate from solution in the crys­
talline state: for instance, wax dissolves in petrol, but on
evaporating the solvent we do not get crystals of wax, nor
is glass crystalline.

6. It can only have been the close chemical similarity of
circonium and hafnium which prevented the isolation of the
latter by chemical means at a much earlier date.

7. Inserted in the circuit thus created is an instrument,
called a galvanometer, diagrammed as a circle with an arrow
that will indicate the passage of electric current through it
and the two wires.

8. In short, it is practically impossible to design a machine
so specialized that it will have value only with respect to the
field of application originally intended. Nor is there any
computer which is superior to any other computer with
respect to every problem.

II

9. It is from experiments on solubility of gases in liquids
that Dalton appears first to have derived direct evidence in
favour of this view.

10. The particles of water grow larger as condensation
continues and ultimately become rain drops. Not until then
do they fall earthward with an appreciable velocity.

11. So slight are the differences between the
members of division A and В in the Periodic Table that the
division into subgroups is scarcely necessary except for
convenience.

12. The value of this mass would not be affected by any
systematic error common to all the observations not even
by such an error which varied uniformly with the time. Nor
would small errors in the adopted elements of the sun have
any effect upon result.


 

13. At first it is only the molecules which terminate the
longer paths that are ionized by collisions.

14. As the flux oscillates across the pole faces, so also
does the neutral commulating zone oscillate.

 

15. Prominent among the confirmations of Einstein's
hypothesis is the work related to the "photoelectric effect".

16. The "quant" theory, useful as it has proved itself
does not yet possess the assured position of the atomic
theory of matter.

17. Not until after the humanistic movement revived the
study of Greek in Western Europe did Greek words begin
to enter the English vocabulary in great quantity.

18. The values so estimated were not so high as we now
know them to be, nor were they always accepted, but
recognition of the polymeric nature of proteins is as old as
the peptide theory.

19. Whatever theis cause, or causes, the symptoms are
the following.

Ill

20. Not only are perfect crystals an unattainable ideal,
but they would be completely useless for most research
studies.

21. It was Thales who taught the Greek sailors to steer
their ships by the Pole Star.

22. Indeed, it is not unusual to find evidence of partial
melting of the lead bullet on extracting it from the block,
especially if the latter be of rather hard and resistant wood.

23. Thus it is known that birds do not keep direction by
orientating themselves in the earth's magnetic field, neither
apparently, does memorizing the route play an essential part.





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