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Transposition of adjective

· Qualitative – inherently have certain connotation

· Relative – describe the material (mostly transposed to be used as metaphorical epithets)

· Substantivised – adj. function as noun (are more formal, elevated): dark night – the dark of the night


The use of comparative or superlative forms with other parts of speech may also convey a humorous colouring:

He was the most married man I've ever met. (Arnold)

· -ly – associated with positive quality (womanly)

-ish – associated with bad quality (womanish)


-neo make the words sound formal


Transposition of verb

Forms of verb are inherently (inseparable) covered: modal verbs, passive voice, analytical forms of imperative and indicative mood.
Dramatic 'historical present' shows transposition, present tenses used to describe past events. Effect of foregrounding.

Various shades of modality impart stylistically coloured expressiveness to the utterance and express certain attitude.

Continuous forms may express:
•conviction, determination, persistence:

•impatience, irritation:

•surprise, indignation, disapproval:

The use of non-finite forms of the verb such as the infinitive and participle I in place of the personal forms communicates certain stylistic connotations to the utterance.

The passive voice of the verb may demonstrate such functions as extreme generalisation and deperson-alisation

The use of the auxiliary do in affirmative sentences is a notable emphatic device:

Then I do look at her and see that all the colour has left her face, she is fearfully pale. (Erdrich)

13. Syntactical figures of speech. Syntactical style device (SD) - SD based on the binary opposition of syntactical meaning regardless of semantics.

Rhetorical question is a statement in the form of the question & it presupposes the possible though not demanded answer. The positive form of the rhetorical question predicts the negative answer & the negative form – the positive answer. Ex.: Can we fly, my friends? Why can’t we fly?

Asyndeton it offers no conjunctions & connectives for the syntactical connection)omission). It’s mostly used to indicate tense energetic, organized activities or to show the succession of minute immediately following ach other action. (People sang. People cried. People fought. People loved. People hated...)

Chaismus. This term denotes repetition of the same structure but with the opposite order of elements. (Down dropped the breeze, the sails dropped down) Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus.

Ellipsis is the omission of one of the main parts of the sentence or both of them. Here, we must differentiate between the ellipsis used in the author’s narration in order to change its tempo & condense its structure & second – which is used in the heroes speech to reflect the oral norms & create the effect of the naturalness & affectivity of the dialogue. Ex.: A poor boy! (неполный) No father, no mother, no any one (полный). And if his feelings about the war got known, he’d be nicely in the soup. Arrested. Perhaps – got rid of, somehow.

Aposiopesis It is the sudden break of the narration. It’s the norm of the oral excited speech or the character’s deliberate stop in the utterance to conscal its meaning. Certain phrases often repeated with the intonation of the non-finished sentence become trite aposiopesis, they indicate that the speaker’s idea of the possible continuation of the utterance exists in a very general non-detailed vague form. Ex.: Well, I never! (trite) “She must leave – or – or, better yet – maybe drown herself – make away with herself in some way – or – “ (original)

Parallelism consists in the repetition of the whole structure of the sentence

o Complete parallelism – the presents identical structures of two or more successive clauses or sentence (Ex.: He was a sallow man – all cobblers are; and had a strong bristly beard – all cobblers have)

o Partial parallelism – the repeated sentence pattern may vary. Ex.:What is it? Who is it? When was it? Where was it? How was it? (ex.: Passage after passage did he explore; room after room did he peep into)


anaphora: the beginning of two or more successive sentences (clauses) is repeated - a..., a..., a.... The main stylistic function of anaphora is hot so much to emphasize the repeated unit as to create the background textile nonrepeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.


epiphora: the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated - ...a,...a,...a. The main function of epiphora is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.


framing: the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the "frame" for the non-repeated part of the sentence (utterance) - a... a. The function of framing is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was introduced in the beginning, so that by the time it is used for the second time its semantics is concretized and specified.

catch repetition (anadiplosis). the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one -... a, a.... Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a 'more modest level.

parallel constructions which may be viewed as a purely syntactical type of repetition for here we deal with the reiteration of the structure of several successive sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical "flesh". True enough, parallel constructions almost always include some type of lexical repetition too, and such a convergence produces a very strong effect, foregrounding at one go logical, rhythmic, emotive and expressive aspects of the utterance.

Inversion, which was briefly mentioned in the definition of chiasmus, is very often used as an independent SD in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject; or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. Correspondingly, we differentiate between partial and a complete inversion.

suspense - a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence. The term "suspense" is also used in literary criticism to denote an expectant uncertainty about the outcome of the plot. To hold the reader in suspense means to keep the final solution just out of sight. Technically, suspense is organized with the help of embedded clauses (homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence (utterance).

detachment, a stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation). The word-order here is not violated, but secondary members obtain their own stress and intonation because they are detached from the rest of the sentence by commas, dashes or even a full stop as in the following cases: "He had been nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident." (I.Sh.) "I have to beg you for money. Daily." (S.L.) - due to detachment and the ensuing additional pause and stress - are foregrounded into the focus of the reader's attention.

In apokoinu constructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective creates a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one. Cf: "There was a door led into the kitchen." (Sh. A.) "He was the man killed that deer." (R.W.) The double syntactical function played by one word produces the general impression of clumsiness of speech and is used as a means of speech characteristics in dialogue, in reported speech.


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