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Причастия простые и сложные




Причастия бывают простые, т.е. состоящие из одного слова, и сложные, состоящие из двух-трех слов (см. следующую таблицу).

  Active Passive
Present Participle I producing производящий, производя being produced будучи производимым когда / так как производили
Past Participle II   – produced производимый, произведенный
Perfect having produced произведя having been produced после того как / когда произвели

Например:

Air passing over water areas is cooled in summer and warmed in winter.

Воздух, проходя над водной поверхностью, охлаждается летом и нагревается зимой.

Having grown up in an industrial town in the 1930s and 40s, Mackay vowed to study the impacts of industrial processes on a community.

Так как Макей вырос в промышленном городке в 30–40-е годы, он дал себе клятву изучить влияние промышленных процессов на население.

The problem being mentioned should be solved.

Упоминаемая проблема должна быть решена.

Far more people live on plains than on the plateaus and mountains combined.

На равнинах живет гораздо больше людей, чем на возвышенностях и в горах, вместе взятых.

Having been examined individually, the most important components of climate need further investigation.

После того, как важнейшие компоненты климата были изучены по отдельности, их исследование следует продолжить.

Сложные причастия выполняют в предложении, как правило, функцию обстоятельства и обозначают дополнительные действия, которые совершаются с подлежащим или которые подлежащее само совершает наряду с действиями, обозначенными сказуемым.

Причастие I страдательного залога (Participle I Passive) обозначает действие, которое совершают с подлежащим в то же самое время, когда происходит действие, обозначенное сказуемым.

Переводить на русский язык причастный оборот, образуемый сложными причастиями страдательного залога, лучше придаточным предложением, первоначально уяснив для себя связь между действиями. Придаточное предложение, как правило, начинается словами когда, так как или после того как (см. таблицу).

Перфектное причастие действительного залога (Perfect Active Participle) обозначает действие, которое подлежащее выполнило раньше, чем действие, выраженное сказуемым.

Причастные обороты, образуемые перфектным причастием действительного залога, переводятся на русский язык деепричастными оборотами с деепричастием совершенного вида.

Перфектное причастие страдательного залога (Perfect Passive Participle) обозначает действие, которое совершили с подлежащим раньше, чем другое действие, выраженное сказуемым.

 

Тренировочные упражнения

Упражнение 1.

Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. Quarts is one of the commonest minerals being present in many rocks and soils in a wide variety of forms.

2. Having learned the characteristics of the important rocks we can more easily see how various external and internal earth forces acting on them have produced our present topography.

3. Being cut by rapids the rivers of the USA serve as immense source of electric power.

4. The tools and methods employed in underwater surveying vary with the areas being surveyed and the requirements placed on the oceanographers performing the work.

5. Most of the soils of the Columbia Plateau are very fertile having been formed originally from lava.

 

Упражнение 2.

Переведите предложения, учитывая функцию причастий (определение, обстоятельство, часть сказуемого).

1. Convergence occurs when there is a net accumulation of air in a limited sector.

2. Vertical motion is extremely slow compared with convective and downdraught currents.

3. The air .within a depression can be regarded as compri­sing ;m infinite number of small air parcels.

4. These are the horizontal flow patterns producing diver­gence and convergence.

 

Упражнение 3.

Переведите предложения, учитывая функцию причастий (определение, обстоятельство, часть сказуемого).

1. Convergence occurs when there is a net accumulation of air in a net accumulation of air in a limited sector.

2. Vertical motion is extremely slow compared with convective and downdraught currents.

3. The air within a depression can he regarded as compri­sing an infinite number of small air parcels.

4. These are the horizontal flow patterns producing diver­gence and convergence.

5. Anticyclonic vorticity occurs with the corresponding anticyclonic situation,

6. The tropical sources are maritime, originating in the oceanic subtropical high-pressure cells.

7. The maritime type is characterized by high temperatures accentuated by the warming action to which the descending air is subjected.

 

 

Упражнение 4.

Преобразуйте сложные предложения с придаточным обстоятельственным в простое предложение с при­частным оборотом.

Образец: When ice crystals are formed, they grow ra­pidly. – When formed ice crystals grow rapidly.

1. When evaporation from oceans, lakes and moisture trans­pired from plants are taken together, they are often referred to as evapotranspiration.

2. When the water is converted into ice, its composition is not changed.

3. When these patterns are seen on satellite photographs, they are cellular, with a ty­pical diameter of 30 km.

Упражнение 5.

Определите функцию подчеркнутого причастия (определение, обстоятельство, часть сказуемого), предложе­ния переведите.

1. A volume increase involves work and the consumption of energy, thus reducing the heat.

2. Prolonged reduction of the temperature produces condensation.

3. Latent heat is liberated, counteracting the dry adiabatic tempera­ture decrease.

4. The maritime type is characterized by high temperatures ассentuated by the warming action to which the descending air is subjeсted.

5. There is a temperature inversion – a layer of the atmosphere in which the temperature is increasing with the layer to have the same condensation level.

6. The cloud has an arched top find a flat base.

7. When falling, rain is evaporated into tire air.

8. Stratus is the name given lo layers of clouds which show no internal structure.

 

Упражнение 6.

Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на ing-формы.

1. Climatology is a young science, with modern climate science only emerging from meteorology, oceanography, and geology in the late 20th Century.

2. In the case of planet Earth, however, not only are we adding to the sun's heat in the daytime.

3. The gases are heated by the absorbed radiation, and then radiate isotropically (equally up and down), sending energy back toward the surface to act as an extra energy source.

4. Using Wien's law, we can calculate that temperature and establish that Earth is an infrared emitter.

5. At dawn, the sun comes over the eastern horizon, traveling in an arc across the sky, reaching its maximum height at local noon, and then descending toward the western horizon.

6. At the south pole, the sun is just at the northward horizon at local noon, providing essentially no insolation.

7. Absorbtion means that the energy associated with the photon is imparted to some atom or molecule, resulting in a higher energy level in that particle.

8. The radiative flux from the surface acts approximately according to the Steffan-Boltzmann and Wien's laws of blackbody radiation.

9. From space, the emission from the planet will be coming from an elevated level, with a much colder temperature than the surface.

10. In fluid dynamics, some systems are now modeled using "direct numerical simulation" (DNS), in which (nearly) all the active scales are explicitly resolved.

11. The results confirm speculations over recent years that humans are having a large and unprecedented influence on the climate and are fuelling global warming.

12. Huge discharges of ice spill into the north Atlantic, chilling and freshening the surface water, stabilizing the upper ocean.

 

Упражнение 7.

Переведите предложения. Определите, есть ли в предложении Past Participle.

1. The study of climate – sometimes called climatology or climate science – is actually a relatively young field, but has roots in all the major branches of science.

2. Physical and computer models built to predict climate change are based on evidence gathered from glacial geologists and quaternary geologists, that infer, with varying degrees of precision, the Earth's climate history.

3. The equations of motion are the same fundamental equations that govern all classical fluid dynamics, much of energy transfer is based on well-known principles of radiative transfer and nuclear physics and spectrometry, and a lot of observations are based on geological, chemical and biological processes and methods.

4. When focused on issues of climate change, the same physical principles are at work.

5. We investigate the processes involved with climate and climate change, from the sun's influence, to the natural greenhouse effect, to observed changes in the composition of the atmosphere.

6. By the time the energy reaches Earth's orbit, the energy flux (energy per time per area) is only about 1367 W/m², the so-called solar constant.

7. Luckily, the presence of the atmosphere allows the Earth system to store somewhat more energy; the observed global average temperature is approximately 287 K (14 C), allowing a more comfortable existence for humans.

8. Precession is the slow variation of direction of the spin axis, and is affected by both a turning of the spin axis and a slow change in the shape of Earth's orbit.

9. The insolation is reduced by the cosine of this angle, which is known as Lambert's cosine law.

10. The distribution of incoming solar radiation with current orbital parameters, averaged over each day.

11. The net shortwave, which when averaged over suitable time and over the global, is the source of energy to the climate system, but not all the solar insolation is absorbed by the earth.

12. The reflectivity of the surface is usually called the albedo, denoted α, and is simply the fraction of incident light that gets reflected.

13. Climate models come in many forms, from very simple energy-balance models to fully coupled, three dimensional atmosphere-ocean-land numerical models.

14. Simpler models have been developed over the years for many reasons.

15. These models are solved for the equilibrium temperature at each latitude based on the incoming and outgoing radiative fluxes and the horizontal transport of energy.

16. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology presented on Thursday, September 29, their first model calculations for the future of the climate.

Упражнение 8.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. From their inception, urban parks were not conceived of as having ecological value or as being ecological restorations in the sense that we use these terms today.

2. It was constructed at great effort and expense, involving the relocation of several communities, the movement of six million cubic yards of dirt and rock, and the planting of thousands of trees.

3. For example, it is a known fact that pollution in the Arctic is caused by the consumption patterns of people living farther to the south.

4. Groundwater modelling is the only way to integrate the vast amounts of data involved and to provide the fundamental understanding of complex groundwater flow systems needed for effective management.

5. Models can give reliable water balances showing the capacity of the resource, and they can reveal flow paths showing where the water comes from, where it is going, and what migration paths contaminants will follow.

6. Having been a pioneer in groundwater research for over 30 years, Emil Frind used the occasion of his address at Environment Canada to make some observations about the state of groundwater management in Canada.

7. Regions of significant warmth were widespread with large areas of Africa, Australia, Brazil, China and the United States showing significantly above-average temperatures.

8. The information given will be useful for the farming, fishery, transport and tourism sectors.

9. A programme focusing on traditional concepts and methods will be one of the main features.

10. One oceanic process altered during an El Nino year is upwelling, which is the rising of deeper colder water to shallower depths.

11. Iceland will benefit from use of the comprehensive satellite data and images made regularly available by Meteosat-8.

12. Some of the other forecasting methods, such as numerical weather prediction, lose all their skill for forecasts longer than 10 days.

13. This sinking motion leads to generally fair skies and no precipitation near the high.

14. Having become a Category 5 storm, the central pressure fell to 922 mb and wind gusts were estimated in excess of 175 m.p.h.

15. August 26,Andrew made landfall again, this time in south central Louisiana, with a central pressure of 956 mb and sustained winds approaching 120 m.p.h.

16. Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies.

17. Problem issues include, for example, leaking decommissioned landfills, leaking fuel storage facilities, industrial solvents, municipal wastewater effluents, and road salt application to streets and highways.

Упражнение 9.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. The first physical evidence of flood is usually in the form of water running over the surface of the ground, collecting in tiny rills, and eventually flowing into the stream channels.

2. The analyses described yield a theoretical maximum flood.

3. Knowing the actual vapor pressure, the temperature of the dew point can be readily determined.

4. Flood runoff produced by these storms seldom exceeds 8 to 10 inches.

5. The chemicals most commonly used are sodium chloride (common salt) and calcium chloride.

 

Упражнение 10.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. He couldn't imagine that the earth would one day have a population over 6 billion while, at the same time, some food producing markets would experience large agricultural surpluses.

2. Road salts have been used at an increasing rate for the last 50 years, and as a result, one of the Region's well fields has been showing steadily increasing chloride concentrations.

3. The carrying capacity of the resource should be a primary factor when deciding where and how much growth should occur. Consequently, the river must assimilate an increasing load of nutrients and suspended sediment, with the result that water quality in its southern reaches is impacted.

4. It's not surprising that in the last two years, there have been substantial reductions in the global harvest because of heat- and drought-induced reductions.

5. The new rules introduced during the past thirty years include: the widespread implementation of prior environmental assessment requirements; the introduction of "zero discharge" standards or standards that drastically reduce certain toxic substances; increased penalties and sanctions for companies that commit environmental infractions; and rules which recognize the right of citizens to live in a healthy environment and to have access to environmental information.

6. This pollution prevention obligation has been taken up in numerous international declarations emanating from so-called "soft law" and in many binding international conventions established in the past thirty years.

Упражнение 11.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. North America is a low platform rising above the sea.

2. Repeated expansion and contraction tend to de­velop cracks in rocks.

3. Volcanism includes all phenom­ena connected with the movement of heated rock ma­terial and gases to the surface of the lithosphere.

4. Sea water contains every natural element known.

5. Formed as a result of geologic faulting, the basin of the Baltic Sea was filled with ice during the glacial period.

6. Be­ing attached to the continent by a very narrow isth­mus the Crimea Peninsula is almost entirely bounded by the sea.

7. Having learned the characteristics of the important rocks we can more easily see how various external and internal earth forces acting on them have produced our present topography.

8. Covered with steppe grasses the summits of the Crimean mountains serve as excellent summer pastures.

9. Being cut by rapids the rivers of the USA serve as immense source of electric power.

10. Being open to navigation through­out the year, the Black Sea offers an excellent route to the lands of the Mediterranean.

11. Most of the soils of the Columbia Plateau are very fertile having been formed originally from lava.

12. A river can carry a con­siderable load depending on the volume and the veloc­ity of the water and on the size and nature of the solid material transported.

13. The tools and methods em­ployed in underwater surveying vary with the areas being surveyed and the requirements placed on the oceanographers performing the work.

14. The relative importance of air transport is great in areas currently being developed.

 

Упражнение 12.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. When working in the mine we secured many in­teresting specimens.

2. When freezing water expands by about one tenth its volume.

3. The synoptic chart shows conditions as observed at the ground.

4. Peat when compacted by the pressure of layers of sand and clay deposited above slowly changes into "brown coal".

5. Like all substances rock expands when heated and contracts when cooled.

6. Where cleared, the decidu­ous forest tends to be replaced by the rich green grassy meadows.

7. Limestone when mixed with clay may pro­vide good soils.

8. When thawed frozen soil may lose its strength.

9. Most geologic processes are very slow and geologic time is exceedingly long especially when mea­sured by the scale of human history.

10. Ice as deposit­ed by nature is very pure.

11. On the west, Morocco, affected by the Atlantic and the prevailing westerly winds has a humid climate which to­wards the east is becoming drier.

12. The North and South poles have six months of continuous daylight followed by six months of darkness each year.

13. The directions followed by the railways are determined very largely by the mountain chains.

14. The areas in­fluenced by marine climate receive ample precipita­tion in all months with the maximum in the autumn and winter.

 

Упражнение 13.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. Physical oceanography is one of five sub-domains into which oceanography is divided; the other fields being biological, chemical, geological and meteorologic oceanography.

2. Variations of salinity and temperature with depth change the density of the seawater, creating the pycnocline.

3. The amount of sunlight absorbed at the surface varies strongly with latitude, being greater at the equator than at the poles, and this engenders fluid motion in both the atmosphere and ocean that acts to redistribute heat from the equator towards the poles, thereby reducing the temperature gradients that would exist in the absence of fluid motion.

4. The oceans large heat capacity moderates the climate of areas adjacent to the oceans, leading to a maritime climate at such locations.

5. The western side of the equatorial Pacific is characterized by warm, wet low pressure weather as the collected moisture is dumped in the form of typhoons and thunderstorms

6. An idealised ocean basin, spun up from rest by a cyclonic wind stress, acquires a gyre circulation with slow steady flows everywhere except in the region of the western boundary, where a thin fast polewards flow called a western boundary current develops.

7. The Kuroshio Current is an ocean current found in the western Pacific Ocean off the east coast of Taiwan and flowing northeastward past Japan, where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current.

8. It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, transporting warm, tropical water northward towards the polar region.

9. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt that covers the Earth's mantle where there are no continents.

10. The Mediterranean Sea is very nearly its own "ocean", being connected to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and indeed several times over the last few million years movement of the African Continent has closed the strait off entirely, making the Mediterranean a fourth "ocean".

11. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.

12. A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.

13. Unlike mediterranean seas, marginal seas have ocean currents caused by ocean winds.

14. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field. In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations, temperature and salinity variations, etc., this does not occur, not even as a long term average.

15. Waves can be described using a number of standard variables including: frequency, wavelength, amplitude and period.

 





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