III. АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЕ ЧТЕНИЕ И ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИЯ ТЕКСТА
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМЫЕ УЧЕБНИКИ И УЧЕБНЫЕ ПОСОБИЯ ПО СТИЛИСТИКЕ:
1. Учебно-методическая разработка по стилистическому анализу текста (для 3 курса ДО), сост. Г.Н. Цветкова. – Тверь, 2000.
2. Травкина А.Д. Учебно-методическая разработка «Индивидуальное чтение с элементами анализа». – Тверь, 1992.
3. Оборина М.В. Учебно-методическое пособие по аналитическому чтению «Основы аналитического чтения и интерпретации текста с элементами стилистики» (для 3-5 курсов ДФО и ЗФО). – Тверь, 2006
4. Леонова А.И., Колосов С.А. Пособие по аналитическому чтению. – Тверь, 2004
5. Кухаренко В.А. «Практикум по интерпретации текста». – М., 1987
6. Kukharenko V.A. “A book of practice in stylistics”. – M., 1986
7. Kukharenko V.A. “Seminars in style”. – M., 1971
8. Пелевина Н.Ф. «Стилистический анализ художественного текста». – Л., 1980
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 9 (стилистическая)
Read the text with a good dictionary. Prepare to answer questions after the text.
1. From The Wind in the Willows(Ветер в ивах) by Kenneth Graham
THE Mole крот моль родинка had been working very hard all the morning, spring-cleaning генеральна уборка his little home. First with brooms метла веник, then with dusters тряпка дял пыли; then on ladders and steps and chairs, with a brush and a pail of whitewash(ведро побелки); till he had dust in his throat and eyes, and splashes of whitewash all over his black fur МЕХ, and an aching back and wearyусталые руки arms. Spring was moving in the air above and in the earth below and around him, penetrating проникающий even his dark and lowly little house with its spirit of divine божественный discontent недовольство and longing сильное желание. It was small wonder чудо изумление, then, that he suddenly flung downсбросить на землю his brush on the floor, said `Bother!' хлопоты(черт возьми) and `O blow!' and also `Hang spring-cleaning!' and bolted out И НЕ ДАЛ ВОЙТИ В ДОМ of the house without even waiting to put onНАДЕВАТЬ his coat. Something up aboveнад головой was calling him imperiouslyНадменно, and he made for the steep little tunnel which answered in his case в его случае to the gravelled покрытый гравием carriage-drive дорога для экипажей в парке owned by animals whose residences местожительство are nearer to the sun and air. So he scrapedскоблит and scratched царапать, and scrabbled скрестись and scroogedскряга????? and then he scrooged again and scrabbledцараптся скоблить and scratchedчесал and scrapedцарапать скоблить, working busily with his little paws and бормоча muttering to himself, `Up we go! Up we go!' till at last, popдо последнего хлопка удара! his snout морда рыло came out into the sunlight, and he found himself rolling in the warm grass of a great meadow. луг, луговина; низина
`This is fine!' he said to himself. `This is better than whitewashing!' The sunshine struck hot ударяло жаром on his fur, soft breezes caressed ласкало his heated brow нагретый лоб , and after the seclusion of the cellarage удинения в погреб he had lived in so long the carol of happy birds fell on his dulled hearingзатупившиеся(глухой слух) almost like a shoutкрик . Jumping off вскочить all his four legs at onceодновременно сразу же , in the joyрадости of livingжизни and the delightудовольствие of spring without its cleaning, he pursued гнался за им)( his way across the meadow till he reached the hedgeограды on the further side.дальней стороны
`Hold upостановись!' said an elderly пожилой rabbit at the gapв просвете. `Sixpence шестипенсовик for the privilege привелегию
of passing by the private road!' He was bowled over сбить in an instant на мгновение by the impatient нетерпеливым and contemptuousпрезрительным Mole, who trotted along бежал трусцой the side of the hedge chaffingподшучивая the other rabbits as they peeped hurriedly from their holes заглядывали неторопливо в норы to see what the row скандал was about. `Onion-sauceлековый соусНАХАЛЬСТВО ! Onion-sauce!' he remarked насмехаясь jeeringly, and was gone before they could think of a тщательно thoroughly satisfactory reply. Then they all started grumbling ворчать at each other. `How stupid you are! Why didn't you tell him -- -- ' `Well, why didn't you say -- -- ' `You might have reminded him -- -- ' and so on и так делаее, in the usual way; but, of course, it was thenтогда much too late, as is always the case.
It all seemed too good to be true. Hither and thither и туда и сюда,повсюду through the meadows he rambled бродить блуждать busilyделовито , along the hedgerowsживой изгороди , across the copses молодой лесок, поросль, finding everywhere birds building, flowers budding почкованание бутонизация, leaves тяга ?толкание thrusting -- everything happy, and progressive, and occupiedзанято. And instead of having an uneasy conscience совесть pricking покалывая him and whispering `whitewash!' he somehow как то could only feel how jolly восхительно it was to be the only idleбесполезный dog among all these busy citizens. After all, the best part of a holiday is perhaps возможно not so much to be restingотдыхающий yourself, as to see all the other fellowsтоварищи busy working.
He thought his happinessудача was complete when, as he meandered извивался aimlessly бесцельно along, suddenly he stood by the edge of a full-fedжирной river. Never in his life had he seen a river before -- this sleekгладкий , sinuous волнистый , full-bodied полное animal, chasingпреследуя and chuckling смеясь, gripping захватывающий things with a gurgle булькать and leaving оставлять them with a laugh смех, to fling itself on накидывать fresh playmates партнера that shook напугало шокировало themselves free, and were caught схвачены and held обнимать again. All was a-shake and a-shiver трепетало и трясло – glintsвспышка сверкание and gleams мелькание and sparklesсверкать и искорка , rustleшелест and swirlвихрь, chatterдрожание and bubbleпузырь. The Mole was bewitchedзакалдован , entrancedоколдован, fascinatedочарован загипонитизирован. By the side of the river he trottedшел рысью как рысь as one trots, when very small, by the side of a man who holds one spell-boundзавороженный by увлекательным exciting stories; and when tired at last, he sat on the bank, whileпока the river still chattered болтала on to him, a babbling журчаший procession of the best stories in the world, sent from the heart of the earth to be told at last to the insatiableненасытное sea.
Answer the following questions:
1) Who is the main character of the extractвыдержки? What marks this character as the protagonistглавный герой of the story?ALL ACTIONS FROM THAT EXTRACT CONNECTED WITH THE MOLE/
Is it typical that an animal becomes a protagonist of a story?
2) The device of personification is applied when the narrator intends to present inanimate things as living beings in order to create a vivid and moving picture. Find in the extract other instances of personification. Explain how the effect of personification is created in each case (choice of words, naming, ascribing actions and thoughts, and etc.)
3) How would you describe the protagonist of the text? Is he characterized by the narrator directly? Through his actions? Speech?
4) Can you describe the rabbits? Explain how the choice of words by the author adds to the portrayal of the characters.
5) Read the sentence describing the river. What creates the effect of personification in this description?
Never in his life had he seen a river before -- this sleek, sinuous, full-bodied animal, chasing and chuckling, gripping things with a gurgle and leaving them with a laugh, to fling itself on fresh playmates that shook themselves free, and were caught and held again.
6) Who is telling the story? The Mole himself? (The story is told from the first person point of view). An unknown outside narrator? (The story is told from the third person point of view).
7) Does the narrator know everything about the protagonist? (The narrator is omniscient). Prove that the narrator is omniscient and relates to us the inner thoughts and feelings of the protagonist.
8) Throughout the story we hear speech. Try to find out what types of speech are presented in the extract. Give examples.
9) Is the story told in a neutral, unemotional, or emotional way? What makes the story emotional? Among other please explain what is added by the devices employed in the following sentences (rewrite the examples, underline the stylistic means, make a research and find out what they are called):
a) First with brooms, then with dusters; then on ladders and steps and chairs, with a brush and a pail of whitewash; till he had dust in his throat and eyes, and splashes of whitewash all over his black fur, and an aching back and weary arms.
b) Spring was moving in the air above and in the earth below and around him…
c) …spirit of divine discontent and longing…
d) Something up above was calling him imperiously…
e) So he scraped and scratched and scrabbled and scrooged and then he scrooged again and scrabbled and scratched and scraped…
f) …till at last, pop! his snout came out into the sunlight…
g) …finding everywhere birds building, flowers budding, leaves thrusting -- everything happy, and progressive, and occupied.
h) Never in his life had he seen a river before …
i) The Mole was bewitched, entranced, fascinated.
10) Who is compared to whom in this sentence? What is implied by this comparison?
By the side of the river he trotted as one trots, when very small, by the side of a man who holds one spell-bound by exciting stories.
11) What is the meaning of this sentence? Did the river really chatter to the Mole? Can you paraphrase the sentence rendering its direct meaning?
… the river still chattered on to him, a babbling procession of the best stories in the world, sent from the heart of the earth to be told at last to the insatiable sea.
12) Is this text a narration? A description? A dialogue?
13) Look up the meaning of the terms EPITHET, SIMILE, METAPHOR and find examples in the text (three to five for each device), explain why the author has selected them for his narrative.
14) Can you formulate the theme of the extract? (The theme of the text is its subject matter, something the text relates to everybody.)
15) Can you also derive the idea of the extract at hand? (The idea simply speaking answers the question why bother write or read such a text, what is important about this text, what thoughts seem to be implied by it. The idea will be seen differently by different readers as we tend to ascribe different value to the form of the text and its style.)
1) Explain how the Toad is characterized in the extracts below 1) as a personality, what his friends think about him; 2) define the method of characterization in each case as direct or indirect:
A) `Why, certainly,' said the good-natured Rat, jumping to his feet and dismissing poetry from his mind for the day. `Get the boat out, and we'll paddle up there at once. It's never the wrong time to call on Toad. Early or late he's always the same fellow. Always good-tempered, always glad to see you, always sorry when you go!'
B) `He is indeed the best of animals,' replied Rat. `So simple, so good-natured, and so affectionate. Perhaps he's not very clever -- we can't all be geniuses; and it may be that he is both boastful and conceited. But he has got some great qualities, has Toady.'
C) The Rat looked around him. `I understand,' said he. `Boating is played out. He's tired of it, and done with it. I wonder what new fad he has taken up now? Come along and let's look him up. We shall hear all about it quite soon enough.'
D) They disembarked, and strolled across the gay flower-decked lawns in search of Toad, whom they presently happened upon resting in a wicker garden-chair, with a pre-occupied expression of face, and a large map spread out on his knees.
E) `Hooray!' he (Toad) cried, jumping up on seeing them, `this is splendid!' He shook the paws of both of them warmly, never waiting for an introduction to the Mole. `How kind of you!' he went on, dancing round them. `I was just going to send a boat down the river for you, Ratty, with strict orders that you were to be fetched up here at once, whatever you were doing. I want you badly -- both of you.
2) Explain how in the extracts at hand the attitude of friends to Mr. Toad is expressed.
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