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To have to, have got to


§ 157. As a modal verb to have to differs from the others in that it is not defective. It can have the category of person and number and all tense-aspect forms, as well as verbals. It is followed by a to-infinitive and combines only with the non-perfect form of it.


As there is no through train to our town we have to change in Moscow.

We had to look all over town before we found what we wanted.

She won’t have to walk the whole way, will she?

Having to go so soon we were afraid of missing the man.


Have to builds up its interrogative and negative forms with the help of the auxiliary verb to do.


Do you have to work so hard?

Do you have to leave already?

He doesn’t have to be here before Friday.

You don’t have to do what your sister tells you.

Why does he have to go there?


The modal verb to have to expresses:


I. Obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. It is similar in its meaning to must (1). It corresponds to the Russian приходится, вынужден.


She is usually short of time so she has to go by air (ей приходится лететь, она вынуждена лететь).

My sister has a lot of friends in different parts of the country, so she has to write lots of letters (ей



In the past tense have to indicates a fulfilled obligation.


We had to do a lot of things during the week we stayed in the country (were obliged and did it).

They made such a noise that I had to send one of the boys to make inquiries (it was necessary and I did



Have to replaces must where must cannot be used: a) to express past necessity or obligation, b) to express absence of necessity (in the sense of needn’t), since must not means prohibition, and c) to express a future obligation, since the future tense of the verb have to makes the obligation more precise.


a) We had to do it again.

They had to do what they were told.


b) You don’t have to make another copy of the document, Miss Black; this copy will be quite satisfactory.


c) You’ll have to take a taxi if you mean to catch the train.


Have to as a modal verb can be used together with the modal verb may:


We may have to wait long here. - Нам возможно придется долго здесь ждать.


Have got to has the same basic meaning as have to. The difference lies in that have to usually denotes a habitual action and have got to denotes a particular action.

Do you have to get up early every morning?

Have you got to get up early tomorrow morning?

To be to

§ 158. To be to as a modal verb is used in the present and past indefinite tenses.

To be to expresses:


1. An obligation arising out of an arrangement or plan. It is found in statements and questions.


We are to complete this work by tomorrow. (Somebody expects it.)

I am to go down in my car and pick up the parcels.

When is the wedding to be?

When am I to come?

Who is to be the first?

The ship was to dock on Sunday.

I was to meet Mother at the dentist’s at 11.


The last two sentences in which to be is in the past indefinite do not indicate whether the action did or did not take place.

On the other hand this form is the only way to indicate a fulfilled action in the past.


I was to meet Mother at 11 (and I did).

The prize was to honour him for his great discoveries.


To emphasize that the action did not take place the perfect infinitive is used after the past indefinite of the verb to be to.


She was to have graduated in June, but unfortunately fell ill.


The present indefinite may signify an arrangement (especially official) for the future, or referring to no particular time.


The German Chancellor is to visit France.

A knife is to cut with.

2. A strict order or an instruction given either by the speaker or (more usually) by some official authority.


He is to return to Liverpool tomorrow (he has been given orders to return to Liverpool).

You are to stay here until I return (I tell you to...).

You are to do it exactly the way you are told.


Note the difference between to be to and to have to:


Soldiers have to salute their officers (such is customary obligation, the general rule).

All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once (an order).

3. Strict prohibition (only in the negative form).


You are not to do that.

You are not to tell anybody about it.

We are not to leave the place until we are told to.

You are not to smoke in this room.

4. Something that is destined to happen or is unavoidable. It corresponds to the Russian суждено, предстоит.


I didn’t know at the time that she was to be my wife (что ей суждено было стать моей женой).

As a young man he didn’t know that he was to become a famous scientist (ему суждено было стать

знаменитым ученым).

If we are to be neighbours for life we should be on friendly terms (если нам предстоит всю жизнь быть


Не was never to see her again (ему больше никогда не суждено было ее увидеть).

It was not to be (этому не суждено было сбыться).


Sometimes it may be translated by the Russian verb хотеть, especially after the conjunction if.


If we are to get there on time, we must start at once (если мы хотим прийти вовремя, надо сразу


5. Impossibility. In negative sentences or in sentences containing words with negative meaning the verb to be to implies impossibility. In this case the passive form of the non-perfect infinitive is used, unless it is a question beginning with the interrogative adverbs how, where.


They are not to be trusted.

Nothing was to be done under the circumstances.

He was nowhere to be found.

Where is the man to be found?

How am I to repay you for your kindness?


This meaning is similar to the meaning of can and may.

Here are some set expressions with the verb to be to:

What am I to do? Что мне делать? Как мне быть?

What is to become of me? Что со мною станется (будет)?

Where am I to go? Куда же мне деваться?


§ 159. The modal verb need may be either a defective or a regular verb. As a defective verb need has only one form and combines with a bare infinitive. In reported speech it remains unchanged. As a regular verb it has the past indefinite form needed and regular negative and interrogative forms.

There is a slight difference in the usage of regular and irregular forms. The regular form is used mainly when the following infinitive denotes habitual action. The defective form is more common when one particular occasion is referred to:

Need I do it?

You needn’t do it just now.

The teacher said that we needn’t come.

Do I need to show my pass every time?

You don’t need to say it every time you see him.

Need I show you my pass now?


The defective form is mainly restricted to negative and interrogative sentences, whereas the regular verb can be used in all types of sentences and is therefore more common.

Need expresses necessity. It is mainly used in questions and negative statements, where it is a replacement for must or for have (got) to.

Do you need to work so hard (do you have to work so hard? Have you got to...).


It corresponds to the Russian нужно.


You needn’t do it now. Сейчас не нужно этого делать.

Need she come tomorrow? Ей нужно завтра приходить?


The negation is not always combined with the verb, but may be expressed by other parts of the sentence.

I don't think we need mention him at all.

I need hardly say that you are to blame.


In questions need is used when there is a strong element of negation or doubt or when the speaker expects a negative answer.

Need she go there? (hoping for a negative answer)

I wonder if I need go there, (statement of doubt)


In negative statements need followed by a perfect infinitive indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive was performed but was not necessary. It implies a waste of time or effort, and is therefore translated by зря, незачем, не к чему было.


You needn’t have spent all the money. Now we've got nothing left.

Зря ты потратил все деньги, не к чему было тратить....

We needn’t have waited for her because she never came at all.

Нечего было ее ждать. Она все равно не пришла.


The difference between the two forms of need in negative sentences is as follows: the regular verb indicates that the action was not done because it was unnecessary, whereas the defective verb shows that the action, although unnecessary, was carried out. Compare the following examples:

Didn’t need to do smth = It wasn’t necessary, so probably not done.

We didn’t need to say anything at all, which was a great comfort.

She didn’t need to open the drawer because it was already open.

Needn’t have done smth. = It was not necessary, but done nonetheless.

You needn’t have said anything. Then he would never have known about it.

She needn’t have opened the drawer. She found it empty when she did.

Ought to

§ 160. The modal verb ought has only one form. It is not changed in reported speech.

Ought combines with the to-infinitive. When followed by the non-perfect or continuous infinitive it indicates reference to the present or future. In indirect speech it may also refer the action to the past.


You ought to be ashamed of yourself.

I told him that he ought to do it, so he didit.

She told him he ought not to go away.

Ought expresses:

1. Moral duty, moral obligation (which is not always fulfilled). It corresponds to the Russian следует.


You ought to look after your children better (you don’t always do it).

Вам следует больше заботиться о детях.

I wonder whether I oughtn’t to speak to him.

He ought to be punished, oughtn’t he?


When used with the perfect infinitive ought means that something right has not been done, a desirable action has not been carried out, and it, therefore, implies reproach.


You ought to have helped him (but you didn’t).

Вам следовало бы ему помочь.

Не ought to have been more careful (he was not careful enough).

Ему следовало бы быть более осторожным.

Ought not + perfect infinitive means that something wrong has been done and it is now too late to change it. It may also be viewed as a reproach.


She told him he ought not to have done it (but he had done it).

You oughtn’t to have laughed at his mistakes.


The opposite to ought to is needn’t used to mean that the action is unnecessary.


We ought to wash the dishes, but we needn’t dry them, because they will dry themselves.

2. Advisability (which is sometimes understood as desirability).


You ought to see a doctor.

We really ought to buy a new car, oughtn’t we?


3. Probability, something that can be naturally expected. It corresponds to the Russian должно быть, наверное.


You ought to be hungry by now (you probably are, but I’m not certain).

Вы, наверное, уже проголодались.

Apples ought to grow well here.

Здесь должны хорошо расти яблоки.

If he started at nine he ought to be here by four (he will probably be here by four).

There oughtn’t to be any difficulty (it’s unlikely that there will be).

Black Beauty is the horse that ought to win the race(... is likely to win...).


In this sense ought is a weaker equivalent of must when the latter denotes near certainty.

Ought to + infinitive is used when describing something exciting, funny or beautiful in the meaning of I wish you could.

You ought to hear the way he plays the piano!


§ 161. Historically should was the past form of shall and both the forms expressed obligation. But in present-day English they have developed different meanings and are treated as two different verbs.

Should followed by the non-perfect infinitive may be used with reference to the present and future and is not changed in reported speech.


You should be more careful.

Вам следует быть внимательнее.

I told him he should be more careful.

Should is nearly always interchangeable with ought to, as their meanings coincide.

It expresses:

1. Moral obligation, moral duty, which may not be fulfilled. Should is found in this sense in all kinds of sentences. However ought to is preferable in this sense:


All students should submit their work by present date (but some of them don’t).

Студенты должны сдать работу к сегодняшнему дню.

Private firearms should be banned. Личное оружие следует запретить.

Не should phone his parents tonight, but lie probably won’t have time.

Он должен позвонить, но, вероятно, у него не будет времени на это.

If you see anything strange you should call the police.

Если ты увидишь что-то странное, ты должен вызвать полицию.


When used in the negativeform should denotes a weakened prohibition, more like negative advice.


He shouldn’t be so impatient.

When combined with the perfect infinitive should denotes criticism, faultfinding; the statement indicates that something desirable has not been done.


Your shoes are wet. You should have stayed at home.

You should have put more sugar in the pie. It isn’t sweet enough.

He hasn’t brought the book back, though he should have brought it last week.


A negative statement indicates that something wrong has been done.


You shouldn’t have done that. It was stupid.

(Вам не следовало это делать).


They should never have married. They are so unhappy.

Им вообще не следовало (не нужно было) жениться.


Не shouldn’t have taken the corner at such speed.

Ему не следовало поворачивать за угол на такой скорости.

2. Advice, desirability. This meaning is more common with ought to than with should.


You should stay in bed.

Вам нужно (следует) лежать в постели.


I think you should read this book.

Думаю, что тебе следует (стоит) прочесть эту книгу.


You should consult a doctor.

Показался бы ты врачу. (Тебе следует показаться врачу.)


As is seen from the above examples, it is sometimes difficultto discriminate between the first and the second meaning.


3. Probability, something naturally expected (only with reference to the present or future).


The effect of the tax should be felt in high prices (will probably be felt).

We needn’t get ready yet. The guests shouldn’t come for another hour.

Гости вряд ли придут раньше, чем через час.


§ 162. In present-day English shall is not a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning of obligation with the function of an auxiliary verb in the future tense.

As a modal verb shall is not translated into Russian, usually its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.

Shall combined with only a non-perfect infinitive expresses:


1. Promise, oath, or strong intention. In this meaning shall is used with the 2nd or 3rd person with a weak stress.

It shall be done as you wish.

You shall never know a sad moment, Lenny, if I can help it.

He shall get his money.


“I want this luggage taken to my room”.

“It shall be taken up at once, sir.” - Его сейчас же отнесут наверх, сэр.


In the 1st person shall in this sense acquires a strong stress.


I want that prize and I ‘ shall win it.


2. Threat or warning (shall is used in this meaningin the 2nd and 3rdperson).


That day shall come.

She shall pay for it, she shall.

The child shall be punished for it. I won’t allow it.

Anyone found guilty shall be shot at once.

In the first two senses shall is used in affirmative and negative sentences.

3. A suggestion or offer


It is used in questions (and offers) in the 1st person singular and plural. Such sentences are translated into Russian by the infinitive.

“Shall I get you a chair?” – “Yes, please.” Принести вам стул? - Пожалуйста.

Shall we begin? - Yes, let’s. (Нам) начинать? - Давайте.

Shall I read? - Please, do. Мне читать? - Читайте, пожалуйста.


The above three meanings are closely connected with the old meaning of obligation which is at present not common in spoken English and which is normally confined to formal or archaic style (official regulations or other documents).


The Society’s nominating committee shall nominate the person for the office of president (...должны выставить кандидата...).


This meaning is found in subordinate clauses.


It has been decided that the nomination shall not he opposed.


§ 163. Like shall, will is not a purely modal verb. It almost always combines its modal meaning with its functioning as an auxiliary verb expressing futurity. Will has two forms: will for the present tense and would for the past tense. Thus will and would are looked upon as forms of the same verb, although in a few cases their meanings differ.


I. Will combined with the non-perfect infinitive expresses:

1. Willingness, intention, determination. It is often rendered into Rus­sian by непременно, обязательно, охотно. Would in this meaning shows reference to the past.


I will write as soon as I can. (Я непременно напишу, как только смогу.)

I will be there to help. (Я обязательно там буду и помогу.)

I can and will learn it. (Я могу выучить и обязательно это выучу.)

When he was young, he was so poor that he would do anything to earn some money. (... он согласен был

на любую работу, чтоб подзаработать.)


This meaning is often found in conditional sentences.


If you will help me we can finish by six.

Если вы согласитесь мне помочь, мы можем кончить к 6 часам.

If you will wait for me I’ll be very grateful.


When used in the negative it denotes a refusal to do something.


I won’t accept your offer (I refuse to...).

They wouldn’t listen to me (they refused to listen to me).

He wouldn’t answer my question (he refused to answer...).

2. A polite request or an offer. This meaning occurs only in questions.

Will you pass the salt, please?

Will you haw some tea?


In comparison with will the form would renders a greater degree of politeness.

Would you please pass the salt?

Would you please lend me your pencil?


It is still more polite to use the combinations: Would you mind (+ -ing form), Would you be so kind as to...

Would you be so kind as to lend me your book?

3. A command (in military contexts it is a strict command).


Officers will report for duty at 06.00.

You will do exactly as I say.

You will go in there and tell him that the game is up.


An impatient command can begin with will you.

Will you be quiet! - Замолчишь, ли ты наконец?

Will you in the tag after a negative command can tone down the command (and is pronounced with the falling tone).


Don’t be late, will you?


But after a positive command will you has a rising intonation and expresses impatience.


Sit down, will you?

Shut the door, will you?

Shut the door, won’t you?

Would is never used in this meaning.

4. Insistence, resistence. Will and would are stressed when used in this sense.


He will try to mend it himself (he insists on mending it himself).


With reference to inanimate objects will and would show that a thing fails to perform its function. It occurs in negative statements and corresponds to the Russian никак не.


The door will not open. The orange won’t peel. The engine wouldn’t start. The wound wouldn’t heal. - Дверь никак не открывается. - Апельсин никак не очистить. - Мотор никак не заводился - Рана никак не заживала.


5. Inevitability, characteristic behaviour, quality, or something naturally expected.


What will be will be. Accidents will happen.   Boys will be boys. Truth will out. - Чему быть, того не миновать. - Несчастные случаи неизбежны (не­счастный случай может произойти с каждым). - Мальчишки всегда остаются мальчиш­ками. - Истины не утаишь.


This sort of inevitability or prediction often occurs in sentences with conditional clauses.


If people study they will learn. (If people study they learn)

If litmus paper is dipped in acid, it will turn red (it turns red).


This meaning cannot be rendered in Russian by any analogous modal verb.


Oil will float on water.

Children will often be full of life when their parents are tired.

This car will hold six people comfortably.

That’s exactly like Jocelyn - she would lose the key.

6. Disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only would is used. It is found mainly in responses. It corresponds to the Russian этого и следовало ожидать, на него похоже.


“I know she attended the place.”

“Oh, yes, she would.” - Конечно, что еще можно ожидать.

“Hе refused to interfere.” “ He would.” — На него похоже.

“I don’t like it and I don’t visit the place.” “No, you wouldn’t.” (I didn’t expect you would.)

You would be late! - Конечно, ты опять опоздал.

You would forget. - Конечно же, вы забыли.


II. Will/would combined with different forms of the infinitive can express prediction, a certainty about the present or the future (in a similar way as must).


This will be just what she wants. That will be my wife. This will be our train. That would be he! John will have arrived by now (by tomorrow). - Это, очевидно, то, чего она хочет. - Это, конечно, моя жена. - Это, наверное, наш поезд. - Это, наверное, он. - Джон наверняка уже приедет к этому времени (к завтрашнему дню).


In the latter case must is impossible as with a perfect infinitive it has a reference to the past.


That would be in 1910, I think. Why are you asking him? Не wouldn’t know anything about it. Who is the man? You wouldn’t know him. - Я думаю, это, наверное, было в 1910 году. - Зачем вы его спрашиваете? - Вряд ли он что-либо об этом знает. - Вряд ли вы его знаете.


Note the expression:

You would, would you? - Ax, ты так!


§ 164. The modal verb dare may be defective or regular.

As a defective verb dare has two forms: dare for the present tense and dared for the past tense. It is used chiefly in interrogative and negative sentences. It has the meaning - to have the courage or independence to do something, to venture.


How dare he speak to you like that? (I wonder at such impudence.)

How dare you sneak into my room like this?

He daren’t write anything in case it isn't good (he hasn’t got the courage).

Dare you ask him? (Are you brave enough to ask him?)

That’s as much as I dare spend on it.


As a regular verb dare has a limited paradigm of finite forms and no verbals. It may have two meanings:

1. To venture, to have the courage or impudence (like the defective dare). In this sense it is used mainly in negative statements.


He didn’t dare to stop me (he didn’t have the courage).

She doesn’t dare to answer.

Don’t you dare to touch me.

2. To challenge, to defy.


I dared him to jump (I challenged him to do it).

I dare you to say this straight to her face. - Попробуй, скажи ей это прямо в лицо.

Note the following combinations with the modal verb dare.

I dare say — I suppose, no doubt.

I dare say you are right. - Очень возможно, что вы правы.

I dare say he will come later. - Полагаю (пожалуй), он придет позже.


§ 165. The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things (book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England), materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep, consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness, courage).


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