Слова для понимания текста
solely— только, исключительно
guess— догадка, предположение
opulence— изобилие, богатство
bedrock— основной принцип
Today, most people have a hard time understanding what
It was nor coincidence that England gave birth to the first
Of these books, the most important is that by Adam Smith. It is the first great classic of economic theory and one of the first known
attempts, to describe economic life as at whole.
The^rgenesis of The Wealth of Nations exactly mirrors the industrial revolution. Adam Smith was born in 1723, and was a
254 Unit 10
student at Glasgow University ia Scotland from 1737 to 1740. Between 1764 and 1766 Smith 'toured Europe. While in France Smith met Voltaire and was greatly influenced by a group of philosophers. On his return from France, Adam Smith sat down to write his great book.
The first key question the book Addresses is what is, wealth? Real wealth mVasured' by the availabiliti consumable goods, and the labour, which produces them. Дп inciease in wealth» equals an increase in goods., and plenty means heap goods. Anything that restricts the availability of goods iteoucei a nation's wealth. National wealth can only increase as trade dees between and within^ nations. For trade to grow you need a market and how the market works is the cdre of Smith's book.
What.makes markerscsuch important creators of wealth is that
they enccmrage the 'drvision'of labour and specialisation.
• ? An effective market reconomy andn the civjsed society that it
supports — depends on^a ^erwdrk^o^cb-oper^pn tiiat is neither
""planned ^^.directe^by^a political power. The operation of market
force^lilce^trje dlytsjon of labour, brings great Benefits to society
and 'raises lhet sianaa'rd^.pf living, but this benefit ^cannpt be
planned. Buyers and lifersЪ,a market are motivatedjilmost solely
by sel.f-interest, but serve "uje public interest without Having
30. Дополните вопросы и попросите вашего сокурсника ответить на них.
1. What ___ you_____ about Adam Smith and David
Ricardo? (say, know)
2. When___ Adam Smith___ ? (be born)
3. What university__ Adam Smith____ to? (go)
4. What ___ Adam Smith____ between 1764 and 1766? (do)
5. Who(m) ____ Adam Smith______ while in France? (meet)
6. Who____ he___ by? (influence)
7. What ___ he___ down to write on his return from
8. What full title___ Adam Smith_____ to his book? (give)
9. When___ it_____ ? (publish)
10. What ___ the key question of this book? (be)
Расскажите о жизни и деятельности Адама Смита.
32. Прочитайте текст В про себя и скажите по-русски, чем вызвана
Слова для понимания текста:
Capital-intensive — капиталоемкий
To respond — отвечать, реагировать
Uncertainty — ненадежность, неуверенность
Externalities — внешние эффекты
Costs — расходы, издержки
Competency — правомочность
utilities — pi предприятия общественного
drive — зд. тенденция
Law — закон
Loan — заем
To hamper — препятствовать, мешать
To encourage — поощрять
To assure — гарантировать
ТЕКСТ В US Coal Industry Today
.New competition ftpm international Purees and more strictenviriinrr\fentarre!giimtil)hsJare the reasons the coal industry is a major restructuring. This competition means that cost increases
cannot7 Ъе* passed through automatically. Jt means pressure on utilities to reduce power costs. It njeans umo^Se^^ompanies^ust become more capital-intensiye to reduce' latxmrcosts" that aVe out of control. It means pushing1 cost reductions through the entire supply chain: from power generation, to coal transportation, to coal production. This pressure of competition started in the early 1980s a^nd has affected all aspects of the supply chain.
It'snouftf be noted that there are four fundamental reasons for the restructuring and consolidation of the coal industry. The first is theneed t^'reauc^.coets^ £pinbmmg companies can creaip greater, efficiency by «moving ^ificjaj J>arries and eliminating* duplication". The market-plac^ iielnancfs lower1 costs. Technological aSfvakcres enable the industry to achieve lower costs.
The second reaspn for restmctyjri.ng^is the^n^ed for higher capitalization fo respond to changing consump'tion patterns, -r,i(.,,,,
The ^ird. reaspn for restructuring the coal industry is the uncertainty" surrounding the^coal and electricity generating industries. The^ep uncertainties encompass global climate change and externalities. But they also include expectations' on electricity demand'grbwiifi and natural gas price trends.
The fourth reason is the recognition that industries must focus on their core competencies torremain c6nip^e'tillve. ' ^^ r kp^ Soothe request for lower costs, ^changed co'n'sumptio^/pafterns', uncertainty in future 'reg^ilatldri and the return to core competencies are the^riying factors Чняшм! the ^gomg iriSustry restructuruig. The driveУюг efficiency is of utmost importance.
The US coal industry is no longer an 'island'. It clihip'etes with coal internationally and competes with other fuels, such as natural gas.
The drive to improve ^fficiency within the coal and electricity-
<t! °Union lead^s inast ian work rales, established in a previous era, that now hamper' productivity 4»provements.
Thus, inefficient producers, labour leaders and government regulators have become the fficfton' that can stop forward progress until natural competitive forces overcome, the friction andjemstate progress.
Unit 10 257
, The principal assure a low-cost^
the objective of limiting greenhouse gas~ emissfo'ns rtgarless of
The nation's current national energy policy discourages the use of coal for electricity generation Vftffle encouraging the use of other
. . '
energy sources, such as natural gas. - '
33. а) Выпишите из текста специальные экономические термины и дайте
б) Составьте десять общих и специальных вопросов но тексту, задайте нж
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