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На данном занятии вырабатываются умения: а) определить позицию собеседника(-ов); б) оценить логичность аргументации собеседника(-ов); в) обобщить сказанное собеседником; г) сформулировать свою точку зрения; д) защитить ее с помощью аргументов. Для развития как рецептивных, так и продуктивных умений используется путь от рецепции к продукции, причем рецепция используется как в устной, так и в письменной форме. На занятиях такого типа могут быть представлены практически все интеллектуальные операции. В данном случае подключаются отбор, классификация, анализ, обобщение. Но ведущими обязательно являются сопоставление по контрасту и структурирование. Занятие рассчитано на четыре часа на II курсе языкового вуза.


Структура занятия


The aim of the lesson is to teach you to formulate your point of view as opposed to those of others, to support it by arguments and to see the inconsistencies in your opponent's argumentation.


1. Прослушивание ряда коротких реплик иих классификация в связи с двумя заданными точками зрения.

Listen to the following cues and classify them according to two pointsofview: 1) It's undesirable to interfere in what isn't your business; 2) It's our duty to point out to others that their behaviour doesn 't suit the situation.

I am not concerned with how he spends his evenings as long as he does his job well.

You ought to speak to Mrs. Black about her dog:I saw it sleeping right in the middle of the road. It'll get run over.

You oughtn't to give your baby those sweets. It'll get sick.

I might not approve of the way Mrs. White brings up her children, but after all, they are her children and not mine.

Don't you find it boring being always on the move? Never a home of your own? Isn't it time you settled down?


2. Прослушивание связной полемической реплики и множественный выбор дополнительного аргумента, отвечающего выраженной точке зрения.

Listen to some unfinished pieces of argumentation and select among the given arguments the one that can be added in full accordance with the speaker's viewpoint. E.g.:

Having a car is likely to shorten one's life. For one thing, you are deprived of fresh air. Then there's always the danger of getting into an accident. And to finish with,...

... there come the problems of repair and getting petrol.

... you don't get enough exercise.

... people will always be asking you to give them a lift.


3. Множественный выбор фразы, обобщающей развернутую реплику.

Listen to the following pieces of argumentation and in each case select the phrase that best sums up the given piece. E.g.:

Older people interfere with everything, and a young married couple is always dependent on their parents. And you know that older people tend to be over-conservative. Besides, children are often spoilt by their grandparents. In a word,...

Young married couples ought to try to live together with his or her parents.

Young married couples should have a home of their own.

Young married couples ought to follow their parents' advice.


4. Вычленение основного постулата в связной полемической реплике собеседника и выражение своего согласия или несогласия с ним.

Listen to some other pieces of argumentation. Find the sentence reflecting the speaker's point of view. Reproduce it (not necessarily word for word!) and express your agreement or disagreement. E.g. :

"Women are human beings and have the right to behave in the same way men do. But it is natural that women should look after babies. Babies need their mother more than they need their father. And bringing up children is the most creative work possible."

"I quite agree that the upbringing of children involvesthe mother's creative abilities." Or:

"It seems doubtful whether taking care of a baby can be called creative work."


5. Построение небольшой связной полемической реплики на основе заданной точки зрения с выражением собственного отношения к ней.

Read the given statements. Their style is a bit bookish. Make it colloquial for your imaginary listener, express your agreement or disagreement and add an argument to support your viewpoint:

Careful choice of a matrimonial mate is the primary basis for a successful marriage.

Parental counsel ought not to be ignored.

• Parental control of marriage has been disparagedin our society.

E.g.: They say that parental counsel ought not to be ignored. In other words, one ought to consult one's parents before making important decisions. Perhaps it's true - for the simple reason that, if you make the wrong choice, no one will be able to blame you for that!


6. Суммирование основных мыслей, представленных в полемическом тексте.

Romance, according to some researchers, is a process of fantasy formation, usually adolescent, when one idealizes another person, ignoring the faults and magnifying the virtues of the loved one. (After marriage, there is an emotional return to reality.)

It should be noted that all see romantic love as some form of compensating emotion, personally satisfying, idealizing someone else but unrelated to reality. Studies of marital failure and success show quite clearly that marriages based chiefly or wholly on romantic attraction do not turn out nearly as well as those built on more comradely affection.

Supporting these conclusions are other studies showing that the longer the period of acquaintance before the marriage, the greater are the chances of marital success.

Perhaps most essential is the similarity of tastes for marital success. This means that like should marry like. Marriage involves living with a person, not merely loving him. It is this prosaic fact that places romantic love in its proper proportions as a basis for marriage. Romance must be termed a prelude to the more sober and realistic consideration of a mate, but romance alone is not enough [5].


7. Составление ряда микродиалогов, связанных с выражением своего мнения по поводу заданных постулатов.

Express your attitude to each of the following statements and add an argument to explain why you think so. Let your partner give another argument if he sees eye to eye with you on the problem, or let him give a counter-argument, if his opinion is different:

Romance is not a proper basis for mate selection.

Young people about to get married usually evaluate quite soberly the faults and virtues of their beloved.

Romantic love preceding marriage is usually unrelated to reality.

Similarity of tastes matters very little in a successful marriage.

E.g.: "It's naive to suppose that similarity of tastes matters very little in a successful marriage. If tastes differ, you can't avoid quarrelling."

"But don't you think that life loses its charm when argument is impossible? After all, an argument does not mean a quarrel!"


8. Суммирование и комментирование содержания прочитанного полемического диалога, что предполагает выражение своего отношения к сути конфликта.

Read the dialogue, sum up the essence of the conflict and express your own attitude to it:

"I must have a new dress."

"Why must you? Youdon't need a new dress. You've got lots of dresses."

"Don't you want me to look nice at the Blacks' party?"

"Why must you go to the party? You don't need to go - if you don't want to."

“Oh no! We really must go."

“Why need we? We didn't go last time."

'That's why we simply must go this time."

I don't see why."

'They mustn't think us unfriendly.You don't want them to think that?"

"Oh well!" [53].

E.g.: The wife insists on having a new dress to wear at a party they've been asked to. The husband sees no reason either why she should buy a dress or why they should go to the party, but his wife believes they simply must go this time. Perhaps it is not necessary to get a new dress for each party one is asked to, but it is certainly impolite to stay away for no reason at all.


9. Собственное продолжение ролевого диалога с опорой на предложенную логическую схему.

Continue the dialogue between a daughter and a mother according to the logical scheme offered below:

1) "You look unhappy."

"Perhaps I am."

2) "Why?"


"You know why. I am worried about you."

3) "You think I ought to get married?"

"Yes, I do. Get married and start a normal life, that's what you ought to do."

The logical scheme of the continuation of the dialogue:

4) Contradicting. - Insisting.

5) Explaining one's refusal. - Rebuking.

6) Giving another argument to support one's refusal. - Disapproval.

7) Expressing disagreement. - Insisting.

8) Sarcastic disagreement. - Refusal to communicate.


10. Объективное комментирование точек зрения и аргументации спорящих в предыдущем диалоге.

Try to prove that both the mother and the daughter are right, each in her own way. Whose point of view still appears to be more valid to you? (a monologue).


11. Свободный диалог-дискуссия по предложенным проблемам.

Discuss the following statements with your partner. (Do not communicate with each other before your turn comes round!)

a) A poor marriage, among other things, prevents personal development.

b) The longer the period of acquaintance before marriage, the greater are the chances of a successful marriage.

c) Nowadays one can rely on computers for selecting a matrimonial mate.

Особенность данного типа занятий состоит в том, что проблемность, логичность, и языковая правильность высказываний обеспечиваются за счет трех взаимодействующих линий:

а) оценка, расширение и построение отдельной реплики и реагирование на нее;

б) вычленение информации из полемического монологического текста и оценка его аргументации;

в) анализ полемического диалога в плане последовательности речевых действий и весомости аргументации каждого партнера.

Все задания коммуникативны. Первые три представляют собой тренировку, остальные могут быть отнесены к речевой практике в силу отсутствия жестко заданных опор. Может казаться спорным отнесение к речевой практике девятого задания, где учащиеся составляют диалог по навязанной логической схеме, что противоречит реальным условиям общения. Действительно, по характеру инструкции задание является тренировочным. Однако студенты самостоятельно придумывают и формулируют аргументы: они исходят, в сущности, лишь из заданной точки зрения. По активности мыслительных процессов задание почти аналогично планированию реальной полемики, когда ее результаты очень важны. Мы нередко «проигрываем» про себя возможные варианты предстоящей беседы и прикидываем: « Если он возразит таким образом, то я отвечу вот так:...».


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