THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. The country consists of 3 parts: the continental part is in the center of the North American continent. The outlying territories are Hawaii and Alaska. The total area of the United States is over 9 mln sq. km. The country borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.
The country is washed by 3 oceans: The Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, including the Great Lakes and many rivers, the longest of which are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia and others. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is in Alaska.
The climate conditions are rather various. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.
The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio engineering and others.
Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 mln. The official language of the state is English. The national symbol of the USA is the national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolizing the number of the original and present day states.
Officially the country comprises 50 states and 1 District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac River and is named after the 1st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, Boston and some others.
The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.
The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives — population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of federal courts.
There are several political parties in the USA. The largest of them are the Republican (symbolized by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolized by an elephant).
Nowadays the USA is one of the leading powers of the world due to its economic, political and military influence.
II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
old, now, symbol, out, rich, geographic, situate, day, agriculture, official.
V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.
VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, времена групп Simple, Continuous и Perfect активного и пассивного залога; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:
1. London is situated on the river Thames.
2. There have been two places of interest in the City.
3. The student said that the executive power belonged to the President and his Administration.
4. Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations.
5. Each state must have its own capital.
VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1. What is the capital of Great Britain?
2. Is London a big city?
3. What is London's population?
4. On what river does London stand?
5. Into what parts is London divided?
6. Why is the City called the business centre of London?
7. What places of interest does Westminster include?
VIII.Составьте аннотацию на текст (2 - 3 предложения).
IX.Составьте реферат на текст (10 - 15 предложений).
X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.
I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:
Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land, which does not belong to any one state but to all the States. The district is named in honour of Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America. It is very interesting that Americans never say simply «Washington». They always add «D.C.» as the indication of the location. It is important because there are many towns with the same name all over the country and even one large state in far north-west.
Washington was founded in 1791 as the capital of the United States of America. Washington is quite a new city. The population of the city is nearly one million people. It is not a very large city, but it is very important as the capital of the USA. There is a law in Washington against building structures higher than the Capitol.
Washington has many historical places. The largest and tallest is the Capitol, where the Congress meets. It is a very beautiful building with white marble columns. Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress. It holds five million books.
The White House, the residence of the president is the oldest public structure in the capital and one of the most beautiful. It was built in 1799. It is a two storey white building. Not far from the Capitol is the Washington monument, which looks like a very big pencil. It raises 160 metres and it is empty inside. A special lift brings visitors to the top in 70 seconds, from where they can enjoy the view of the city.
The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of the third President of the USA Thomas Jefferson, who was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The Memorial is surrounded by cherry trees.
The Lincoln Memorial is devoted to the memory of the sixteenth President of the USA, the author of the Emancipation Proclamation, which gave freedom to Negro slaves in America.
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