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The United States of America





The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. The 48 states, which occupy the central one-third of North America, are bounded in the north by Canada and in the east — by the Atlantic Ocean. In the south the border runs over the Gulf of Mexico, besides, in the area America borders on Mexico. In the west the US is washed by the Pacific Ocean. The national capital is Washington.

The total area of the country is 3,679,192 square miles (9,529,063 square kilometres), making it the fourth largest in the world in area (after Russia, Canada, and China).

Although the population of the United States is large by world standards, its average population density is relatively low.

The United States is the world's greatest economic power, measured in terms of gross national product (GNP), with a very high living standard of the population. People own houses and a lot of durable goods such as cars, refrigerators, different home appliances. The nation's wealth comes from its rich natural resources, its enormous agricultural output, and the country's highly developed industry. The country has a lot of high technology industries. Despite its relative economic self-sufficiency in many areas, the United States is the most important factor in world trade.

The United States is relatively young by world standards. It is barely more than 200 years old. It achieved its current size only in the mid-20th century. America was the first of the European colonies to separate successfully from its motherland. In the 20th century the United States emerged as a world power. Since World War II it has been one of the most important powers.

Although the United States still offers its residents opportunities for unparalleled personal advancement and wealth it is facing some serious issues. They are: the depletion of its resources, pollution of its environment, inflation and unemployment.

 

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) the happiest time 6) provide information
2)a vast amount of information 7) parental or official authority
3) mature and independent 8) the border runs over
4) home and foreign news 9) high technology industries
5) less dependent 10) to separate successfully

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) у подростков много денег 6) не соглашаться с вышесказанным
2)особые темы 7)национальная столица
3)думают больше о себе 8)гораздо больше, чем
4)обычные люди 9)средняя плотность населения
5)подписываться на любимые газеты 10)загрязнение окружающей среды

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

happy, day, independence, though, great, parallel, bare, advance, employ, sure.

 

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а)к подлежащему, б)к любому члену предложения.



VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, времена групп Simple, Continuous и Perfect активного и пассивного залога; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

 

1. Youth is the happiest time of our life.

2. These days teenagers have more money thus they enjoy more freedom.

3. Nobody will deny that the human brain is at its finest at twenties, that it is the most formative and challenging period of life.

4. Somebody said that readers were also able to express their own views through the readers' letters page.

5. There have been various newspapers: national, regional, local.

 

VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. Why is youth the happiest time of the life?

2. Why dopeople read newspapers?

3. What do national papers carry?

4. What do regional and local papers serve to?

5. How can readers express their own views?

6. What is the population of the United States by world standards?

7. What opportunities does the United States offer its residents?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию на текст (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат на текст (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

ВАРИАНТ № 9

I.Прочитайте и переведите тексты:

Washington

Washington is the capital of the USA. The population of Washington is about 756 000 and together with suburbs its population is over 2 800 000.

The city belongs neither to the North nor to the South. Washington is humid year round because it sits between two rivers, the Potomac and Anacostia. Washington's winters are not severe, the city shares the sweaty summers of Lousiana and the windy cold of the Northwest.

Washington is like no other city of the USA. New York is a centre of finance, of shipping, of fun; New Orlean deals in cotton; Chicago will sell you wheat and a hundred heads of cattles. But Washington's only industry is government. The White House, where the U.S. President lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the U.S. Congress, and the Supreme Court are all in Washington. The Library of Congress, the biggest existing library, contains more than 13 million books in various languages.

There are many places of interest in Washington. One of them is the Thomas Jefferson memorial. This is a memorial to the third President of the United States, the Founder of the Democratic Party.

No visit to Washington is complete without an excursion to the home of George Washington at Mount Vernon. The estate, a typical 18th century plantation home, is on the Potomac River, 15 miles south of the capital.

Washington is a constant scene of mass demonstrations, «hunger marches» and antiwar rallies.

Chicago

Chicago with a population of about three and a half million is the second largest city in the United States (New York is the first). It is a centre of industry for the middle part of the country.

The city is first in the nation in manufacturing of machinery and electronic parts. The stock-yards and meatpacking plants are also famous.

Chicago is the biggest railroad centre. It has a vast commerce by many railways and by the lake, and exports wheat, meat and manufactured goods. Also 40 per cent of the country's motor freight moves in and out of Chicago. More air-lines converge on Chicago than any other city of the U.S.A.

Chicago is also an important centre of culture and science. It is the seat of the University of Chicago and several other institutions, and has important libraries and art collections. Chicago was the site of the first nuclear chain reaction (1942) and is still a leader in nuclear research.

The city was from the start a big melting pot of different nationalities. About one in four Chicago citizens is black. The Chicago Negroes are almost as numerous as those in New York a city twice as large. Chicago's Negroes have a long history of participation in basic industry.

From six to seven million tourists come to Chicago every year and another million and a half come to business and political gatherings.

Bristol

Bristol is the eighth largest city and seaport on the west coast of England with a population of 395 000. It has a total of just under 160 000 homes, of which 40 000 or 25 per cent are still owned by the council. The rivers Avon and From run there.

The harbour was constructed during the early part of the 19th century. There are many deep-water docks in Bristol.

Important public buildings are the exchange, Colston Hall, the museum and art gallery. Bristol possesses the oldest public library in the British Isles, dating from the 15th century. Bristol is noted for its university. It also has soap works, tanneries, tobacco factories, chocolate factories, sugar factories, shoe factories, copper, lead, iron, and chemical works, and shipbuilding yards.

The city is confronted by huge problems of housing shortage and of disrepair in both the council and the private stock. Government cannot tackle these problems effectively and the situation is rapidly deteriorating. The council's housing waiting list has doubled in the last three years and now stands at a total of 13500 families. This is acknowledged to be only the tip of an iceberg. Over 20000 people are estimated to be effectively homeless in Bristol if all categories are aggregated.

Demand for public rented accommodation is rising rapidly as the number of households increases and as home ownership is priced out of the reach of more and more people. House prices in Bristol are soaring. The average price is now 49000, while former council houses are selling for over 40000 in some parts of the city.

 

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) the city belongs 6) a big melting pot
2) the stock-yards 7) heads of cattles
3) year round 8) deep-water docks
4) nuclear chain reaction 9) places of interest
5) sweaty summers 10) housing shortage

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1)вместе с окраинами 6))в некоторых частях города
2)важный центр культуры 7)второй самый большой город
3)ни к северу, ни к югу 8)огромные проблемы
4)каждый четвертый гражданин 9) промышленные товары
5)самая большая существующая библиотека 10)лидер по ядерному исследованию

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

ship, rapid, own, house, build, lead, large, meat, way, plant.

 





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