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The scale of rating student




Structure of assessment Weeks Total
FA
Lecture * * * * * * * -
Practical seminars * * * * * * * -
IWST * * * * * * * -
IWS             * -
Total               0-100%
Structure of assessment Weeks Total
SA2
Lecture * * * * * * * -
Practical seminars * * * * * * * -
IWST * * * * * * * -
IWS           *   -
Total               0- 100%

Calculation of final grade

The final score of the discipline in the percentage determined by the following formula:

FS% = FA+SA х 0,6 + E х 0,4

2

Turan-Astana University has adopted a letter grading system A, B, C, D and F. The numerical equivalents of the grades as determinedby the faculty are detailed below.

 

Grades Description

Grades (for undergraduate level) Points
A 4.00
A- 3.67
B+ 3.33
B 3.00
B- 2.67
C+ 2.33
C 2.00
C- 1.67
D+ 1.33
D 1.00
F 0.00

 

1.

8. The policy of the course

The policy of economic behavior is determined by the teacher as an example, the evaluation criteria of academic student behavior may make the following points: the delay in the activity, the use of mobile phone during class, active participation in the practical (laboratory) classes and other criteria determined by the teacher.

Interpretation student's answer is recommended to plan a response, in which the possible detail the information that makes it easier to learn the material studied, is also necessary to draw conclusions on the topic described.

If all these requirements are guaranteed a successful outcome of the work on the practical classes in general.

To ensure the high efficiency of the educational process, the student is obliged to observe the following rules:

Ø not to be late to class;

Ø not to talk during class;

Ø turn off the cell phone;

Ø not to miss a class, in case of illness to provide help;

Ø timely and diligently do their homework;

Ø be tolerant and friendly to fellow students and teachers;

Ø be punctual and binding.

 

 

Available books for the course

 

Name  
Library Department
В.В.Храбовченко. Экологический туризм. Москва, 2009г.   + +
Л.И.Егоренков. Экология туризма и сервиса. Москва, 2009г. .   +  
М.Ж.Жандаев. Природа Заилийского Алатау. Алма-Ата, 2008г. + +
. В.Н.Вуколов. По Северному Тянь-Шаню. Москва, 2009г.   +  
Погодина, В.Л. География туризма : Учебник / В.Л. Погодина, И.Г. Филиппова; 2009 +  
Вуколов В.Н. Основы техники и тактики активных видов туризма.: Учеб. пособие. – 2-е изд., испр. И доп. – Алматы, 2005.- 224 с. –(Казах. Акад. Спорта и туризма) + +
Хасенов А.Х.Основы техники и тактики активных видов туризма (теория и практика).: Учеб. пособие. – Астана: Ун-т «Туран-Астана»,2007.- 280 с.   +  
1Биржаков М.Б. Введение в туризм.: Учебник.- 7-е изд., перераб. и доп.-М.:- СПб:Невск.Фонд- ИД Герда, 2008- 448   + +

Lectures

№ 1 Basic concepts of technique and tactics of active types of tourism.

Objective of the lesson: define the basic concepts of tourism, types and forms of tourism.

Key words: tourism, recreational tourism, combined tourism

Plan of the lecture:

1. Main concepts in tourism.

2. Types of tourism

3. Forms of tourism

1.1.Main concepts in tourism.

1.1.1. Tourism and leisure. Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and deepening ‎diversification to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world. ‎Modern tourism is closely linked to development and encompasses a growing number ‎of new destinations. These dynamics have turned tourism into a key driver for socio-‎economic progress.‎

Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, ‎food products or automobiles. Tourism has become one of the major players in ‎international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income ‎sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an ‎increasing diversification and competition among destinations.‎

This global spread of tourism in industrialised and developed states has produced ‎economic and employment benefits in many related sectors - from construction to ‎agriculture or telecommunications.‎

.

Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".

Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance.

 

According to the law "On tourism activities" Kazakhstan Tourism temporary departure of citizens of Kazakhstan, foreign citizens and stateless persons with permanent residence in the health, educational, professional and business, sports, religious and other purposes without gainful employment activities in the country of temporary residence . For more than 24 hours and at least 6 months.

Active tourism.

This travel is connected with active ways of movement of tourists with sport and other similar purposes. Extreme tourism also belongs to active tourism.

Gastronomy tourism

Travel is aimed to study specialties of a country's cuisine. The ecological purity of the used products is an important advantage of gastronomic tour. Visits the alcoholic beverage industry and wineries with wine tasting are especially popular.

Commercial Tourism

This type of travel is paid by individuals or organizations, as contrasted with social tourism, partially or fully paid by the state.

Congress Tourism

Travel in order for the individual to take part in congresses, conferences and assemblies. The package deal of congress tourism includes post congress service of delegates and accompanying persons including family members following with delegates.

Incentive tourism.

Employees are offered a travelling partly or wholly paid by their organization as a reward for good results of labor.

Recreational (medical) tourism.

Type of tourism, aims of which are health improvement, treatment and rest. This type of tourism is directed at reinvestment and strength with the elements of relaxation.

Rural Tourism.

Travel is aimed to rest in the village, to the initiation of rural life. It may also involve participation in agricultural work.

Event tourism.

This type of tourism is associated with visiting events such as major international sports competitions, cultural events, ethnic celebrations, religious holidays, and also events related to the anniversary celebrations. We also organize trips to fashion shows, European cup games, concerts, visits to international music and film festivals, the Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Social Tourism

Travel is subsidized from the funds allocated by the state for social services.

Sports tourism.

It includes sport and participation in campaigns of a certain category of complexity. There is a trekking, pass hopping, water activities, cycling, equine, automobile tourism and a pot-holing (in caves).

Ecotourism.

This travel provides the minimum impact on environment; ecotour programs usually provide visiting of non-polluting places, natural reservations and reserves.

Extreme tourism.

The travel is connected with extreme types of rest (diving, windsurfing, a skyserfing, mountaineering, extreme hikes, rafting). The purpose of extreme tourism is a receiving unforgettable, adrenaline buzz, among other things the increased risk to life.

Business tourism.

Travel with the business purpose without receiving an income in a sending place.

Passive tourism.

Older tourists are offered a special travel which is not connected with active ways of movement. Passive tourism includes recreational, gastronomic and other types of tourism.

Beach tourism
Many tourists spend their holidays on beaches. They relax, go bathing or just enjoy the salty sea breeze and the ocean. Spending holidays on beaches has had a long tradition for over one and a half centuries.

Winter tourism
Winter tourism started out in the middle of the 19th century when wealthy Europeans went to St. Moritz and other alpineresorts. In Europe and in the American Rockies skiing resorts attract millions of people every year. Various lifts bring skiers to altitudes of over 3,000 meters.

Medical tourism
People go to other countries for medical treatment and operations. Irish women, for example, go to the UK because abortions are forbidden in their country. West Europeans go to Eastern Europe for dentaltreatment. Americans go to Mexico for plastic surgery and other operations.

Educational tourism
Young people live as exchange students in other countries, where they go to school and study the language and culture of the host country.

Sports tourism
An increasing number of sports fans travel to places where special events are being held. The Olympic Games and world championships attract visitors from around the world.

Package Holidays
Organized tours were started in the middle of the 19th century by a British businessman, Thomas Cook. Package tours are made up of travel to and accommodation at the destination. A tourist agency often provides everything from a plane flight to a rentalcar. Sometimes such package tours offer a combination of beach holidays and sightseeing trip.

Spa Tourism
Spas have been popular since Roman times. In 16th century Britain Bath became the center of spa tourism for the rich population. During the 19th century spas emerged all over Europe. Today people go to spas for the healing effect of mineral waters as well as for offer wellness treatment, massages, steam baths and other services.

Adventure tourism
In the past few decades trips to faraway exotic places have become popular. Tourists looking for thrilling activities go mountaineering, rafting, trekking , or even to remote places in the rainforest.

Ecotourism
Recently many people have chosen a type of tourism that does not damage the environment. They avoid travelling by plane or do not buy souvenirs that are made out of endangered plants and animals. Some holiday offers give tourists the chance to take part in environmental projects.

 

1.3 Forms of tourism

Characteristic features of the different forms of tourism. These characteristics include:

The level of accessibility and social significance;

- Social

- Elitist

 

Accroding to locations

inbound tourism’

outbound tourism’

How are tourism activities organized

- Organized

- Unorganized

- Planned

- Amateur

- Summer

- Winter

- Off-season

According to the team structure

- School

- Youth

- Family

 

Questions for self-assessmentl

What does ‘inbound tourism’ mean?

What does ‘outbound tourism’ mean?

What does ‘domestic tourism’ mean?

Recommended books:

1. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013

 

2. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013

 

3. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010

 

4. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012

5. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011

 

6. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011

7. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014

 

№ 2 Methodology for tactical developments..

Aim: explain students about methodology for tactical developments.

Key words

Plan of lecture:

1. searching information about trip destination.

2. Description of trip destination

3. Topographical signs

Pick an Experienced Backpacking Partner

Team up with an experienced friend. Knowledgeable company is good for peace of mind, and a shared backpacking experience is usually more fun than going solo. A been-there/done-that companion(s) can accelerate your learning curve by sharing wisdom gained in the field.

Join a group. Group trips (4–6 people, typically) are memory-makers. Most backcountry areas limit groups to 12 (to minimize impact to the land).

Pick an Appropriate Backpacking Destination

You’ll want to consider such factors as your trip’s length and difficulty, as well as any special considerations (hiking with dogs or kids) or interests (wildflowers, waterfalls, history, etc.).

Trip Distance

A one-night trip makes sense for beginners. Keep the round-trip distance to 10 miles or less. It is reassuring to know that civilization is not too far out of reach.

Got two nights? Consider this: Set up camp on the first night, use the next day to relax or take a day hike to somewhere nice, then return to your base camp that night. This way you’ll tote a full backpack on just two days.

Trip information

There are several good sources of trip information.

Guidebooks: Some authors rate trips for scenic quality—very helpful for picking a prime trail. Their 5-star locales usually attract crowds, so don’t expect solitude unless you visit midweek.

Websites, magazines: Hiking websites abound and can be good resources, though reliability can vary. Magazines are solid sources, and some national parks and forests maintain online trail-condition reports, too.

Well-traveled friends. They can point you to destinations that match your tastes and abilities. REI sales specialists are also a good resource to tap.

Park services:You may be able to find information from park rangers or park websites in the area you're interested in exploring.

Topographical signs.

Topographic map — this is a very interesting and extremely deep drawing. The famous Russian traveler Semenov-Tyan-Shansky said so on this occasion, "Map more important than the text, as is often said much brighter, visually and concisely the best text. " And so it is. Each sheet topographic map contains a wealth of material on the disclosure of which would have required hundreds of pages in a book.

Map — a graphical description of the terrain. Just as the letters are made up of individual words and groups of words express thoughts, and by various topographic symbols, arranged in a specific order, create a map of the area.

Symbols, like the cards, passed a long way of development. Images of local objects on the maps of earlier eras had a "picture" of nature. Each subject transmitted pattern, with no obvious explanation. Cities, forests, castles portrayed as they were seen in the field. Such an image is often used and is now in the tourist plans and maps

To clearly and fully imagine the area on the map, it is first necessary to be able to quickly and correctly identify on the map:

— Types of the surface roughness, and their relative positions;

— Relative and absolute height exceeding any terrain points;

— The form, the steepness and length of slopes.

 

Self*assessment questions:

1. Tell main concepts of tourism?

2. How to choose travel destination correctly?

3. What kind of topographical igns do you know?

 

Recommended books:

4. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013

 

5. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013

 

6. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010

 

7. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012

8. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011

 

9. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011

10. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014

 

№ 3 Active types of tourism

Aim of lecture: Explain for students about active types of tourism

Key words: diving, wakeboarding, kayaking, caving

Plan of lecture:

1. Water tourism

2. Groun-based tourism

3. Mountaineering

4. Air-based tourism

 

 

1. Water tourism is traveling by boat while on holiday, with the express purpose of seeing things meant for the water tourist. This can be traveling from luxury port to luxury port in a cruise ship, but also joining boat-centered events such as regattasor landing a small boat for lunch or other day recreation at specially prepared day boat-landings. Also known as a boating holiday, it is a form of tourism that is generally more popular in the summertime.

Underwater diving is the practice of going underwater, either with breathing apparatus (scuba diving and surface supplied diving) or by breath-holding (freediving).Atmospheric diving suits may be used to isolate the diver from the effects of high ambient pressure, or the saturation diving technique can be used to reduce the risk ofdecompression sickness after deep dives.

Diving activities are restricted to relatively shallow depths, as even armored atmospheric diving suits are unable to withstand the pressures of the deeper waters of the world. Diving is also restricted to conditions which are not excessively hazardous, though the level of risk acceptable to the diver can vary considerably. Occasionally divers may dive in liquids other than water.

The term deep sea diving refers to underwater diving, usually with surface supplied equipment, and often refers specifically to the use of standard diving dress with the traditional copper helmet. Hard hat diving is any form of diving with a helmet, including the standard copper helmet, other forms of free-flow helmet and lightweight demand helmets.

 

Wakeboarding is a surface water sport which involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water. It was developed from a combination of water skiing,snowboarding, and surfing techniques.

The rider is usually towed behind a motorboat, typically at speeds of 30–40 km/h (18-25 mph), depending on the board size, rider's weight, type of tricks, and rider's comfort. This speed could also depend on the year, make, and model of the boat because some boats, which are not designed for wakeboarding, create a different size wake which the rider may not feel comfortable with. But a wakeboarder can also be towed by other means, including closed-course cable systems, winches, andpersonal water craft.

.

Water skis are made of wood, aluminum, fibreglass, or other materials. General-purpose skis are usually about 1.7 m (5.5 ft) long and about 15 cm (6 in) wide. Ski sizes increase for heavier skiers. Each ski has a stabilizing fin on the bottom near the heel. Tight-fitting rubber foot bindings stretch in case of a fall, releasing the skier’s feet without injury.

For trick or figure waterskiing, skis are shorter than the regular skis and have no fins, permitting the skier to turn around completely during the performance of stunts. In competition, trick water-skiers are required to perform on both two skis and the monoski, on flat water and on the wake of a boat. Contestants are allowed to make two 20-second passes in front of the judges, performing as many slides and turns as they can execute in that time.

Waterskiing competitions also include jumps, with the skier towed up a ramp that is 7.3 m in length and may be up to 1.8 m high. The judges score both for distance and for style. To obtain the best distance, the skier cuts sharply against the boat’s wake and hits the ramp as he swings far out to the side. Using a 1.8-m-high ramp with a boat speed of 56 km/hr, a skier can achieve jumps of up to 48.7 m

Waterskiing as a recreational pastime is extremely popular in Europe and the United States, with more than 600 local associations and clubs in the United States alone. The increase in available leisure time combined with the generally greater availability of recreational power boats allowed the popularity of the sport to increase rapidly in the last quarter of the 20th century. By the late 1990s it was estimated that more than 15 million Americans participated in the sport, with a like number in Europe

Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is often done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water, and generally represents a new and challenging environment for participants. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is often a part of the experience.[1] The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet (3.0 m) rafts with double-bladed paddles to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a tour guide at the stern. It is considered an extreme sport, and can be fatal. The International Rafting Federation (IRF) is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport.[2]

therwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting. They range from simple to very dangerous and potential death or serious injuries.

Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. (Skill level: very basic)
Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. (Skill level: basic paddling skill)
Class 3: Whitewater, small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering.
Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed.
Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering.
Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are effectively unnavigable on a reliably safe basis. Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of almost all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a dramatically increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes.

 

2.2. Types of tourism associated with ground

 

Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain.

Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country, trail riding, all mountain (also referred to as "Enduro"), downhill, freeride and dirt jumping. Although the majority of mountain biking falls into the categories of Trail and Cross Country riding styles.

This individual sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, and self-reliance. Advanced riders pursue both steep technical descents and high incline climbs. In the case of freeriding, downhilling, and dirt jumping, aerial manoeuvres are performed off both natural features and specially constructed jumps and ramps.

Speleology or Spelacology (also spelled spelæology or spelaeology) is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology). The term speleology is also sometimes applied to the recreational activity of exploring caves, but this is more properly known as caving, spelunking or potholing. Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same.

Speleology is a cross-disciplinary field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, biology, geology, physics, meteorology and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex, evolving systems.

 

2.3. Mountain tourism

The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering.[2] Hiking in the mountains can also be a simple form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing, as well as crossing glaciers.

While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists of three (3) areas: rock-craft, snow-craft, and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety.[3]

Mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high, and often snow and ice-covered mountains as theAlps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist. The word alpinism was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from merely climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage that had been done generally at that time.[4][5]

The UIAA or Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme is the world governing body in mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, medical, mountain protection, safety, youth and ice climbing

The main problem in climbing Kazakhstan, in addition to its high cost, is the small number of experienced instructors. But they are necessary for climbers climbing enthusiasts. Basically instructors little because not a big salary. By the way is not uncommon to meet Russian instructors abroad.

Skiing, recreation, sport, and mode of transportation that involves moving over snow by the use of a pair of long, flat runners called skis, attached or bound to shoes or boots. Competitive skiing is divided intoAlpine, Nordic, and freestyle events. Competitions are also held in events such as speed skiing and snowboarding.

Skiing was a prehistoric activity; the oldest known skis date to between 8000 and 7000 bce and were discovered in Russia. Early skis have been found in many areas of northern Europe: a 4,000-year-old rock carving depicting skis was found near the Arctic Circle in Norway, and hundreds of ski fragments that are 1,000 to 3,500 years old have been found in bogs in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Some of the first skis were short and broad, resembling snowshoes more than modern skis. Skiing certainly was not confined to Europe, though, as the first written references to skiing are from the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce) and describe skiing in northern China.

Many peoples who lived in climates with snow for many months of the year developed some form of skiing. The Sami (Lapps) believed themselves to be the inventors of skiing, and their use of skis forhunting was renowned from Roman times. In addition, the Vikings used skis from the 9th to the 11th century. Skis are still occasionally used for travel in rural areas of Russia and the Scandinavian countries.

Snowboarding is a recreational activity and olympic sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.

The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. Its popularity (as measured by equipment sales) peaked in 2007 and has been in a decline since

Ski tourism is probably the most developed of all kinds of extreme tourism in Kazakhstan. We have a fairly high level ski resorts. And although they are considerably inferior to their peers, for example, in European countries, our tourists with an average income gladly visit Russian resorts. A ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana is popular among foreigners, mostly from Eastern Europe. And the resort is still being actively developed.

2.4.Air travel

Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as airplanes, helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, or anything else that can sustain flight.[1]Use of air travel has greatly increased in recent decades - worldwide it doubled between the mid-1980s and the year 2000.

The hot air balloon is the first successful human-carrying flight technology. The first untethered manned hot air balloon flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier andFrançois Laurent d'Arlandes on November 21, 1783, in Paris, France,[1] in a balloon created by the Montgolfier brothers.[2] The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia on January 9, 1793 by the French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than simply drifting with the wind are known as thermal airships.

A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries passengers and (usually) a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has alower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the air surrounding. For modern sport balloons, the envelope is generally made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon (closest to the burner flame) is made from fire resistant material such as Nomex. Beginning during the mid-1970s, balloon envelopes have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape remains popular for most non-commercial, and many commercial, applications.

A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship (dirigible) without an internal structural framework or a keel. Unlike semi-rigid and rigid airships (e.g. Zeppelins), blimps rely on the pressure of the lifting gas (usually helium, rather than hydrogen) inside the envelope and the strength of the envelope itself to maintain its shape. The term is sometimes also used to refer to the tethered craft properly known as moored balloons. While often very similar in shape, moored balloons have no propulsion and are tethered to the ground.

Parachuting, or skydiving, is a method of exiting an aircraft and returning to Earth with the aid of gravity, then slowing down during the last part of the descent by using a parachute. It may involve more or less free-fall, a time during which the parachute has not been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity.

Andre-Jacques Garnerin was the first to make successful descents using a canvas canopy from a small basket tethered beneath a hot-air balloon. The first intentional freefall jump with a ripcord-operated deployment is credited to Leslie Irvin in 1919.

The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, and later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1952.

Styles:

Angle Flying

Angle Flying was presented for the first time in 2000 at the World Freestyle Competitions, the European Espace Boogie, and the Eloy Freefly Festival.

The technique consists of flying diagonally with a determinate relation between angle and trajectory speed of the body, to obtain an air stream that allows for control of flight. The aim is to fly in formation at the same level and angle, and to be able to perform different aerial games, such as freestyle, three-dimensional flight formation with grip, or acrobatic freeflying.[16]

A cross-country jump is a skydive where the participants open their parachutes immediately after jumping, with the intention of covering as much ground under canopy as possible. Usual distance from jump run to the dropzone can be as much as several miles.

 

A Technoavia SM92 Finist of Target Skysports lifts skydivers to the jump altitude at Hibaldstow, England

There are two variations of a cross-country jump:

The more popular one is to plan the exit point upwind of the drop zone. A map and information about the wind direction and velocity at different altitudes are used to determine the exit point. This is usually set at a distance from where all the participants should be able to fly back to the drop zone.

The other variation is to jump out directly above the drop zone and fly down wind as far as possible. This increases the risks of the jump substantially, as the participants must be able to find a suitable landing area before they run out of altitude.

Two-way radios and cell-phones are often used to make sure everyone has landed safely, and, in case of a landing off the drop zone, to find out where the parachutist is so that ground crew can pick them up.

BASE jumping, also sometimes written as B.A.S.E. jumping, is parachuting or wingsuit flying from a fixed structure or cliff. "BASE" is an acronym that stands for four categories of fixed objects from which one can jump: building, antenna, span, and Earth (cliff).[1][2] Due to the lower altitudes of the jumps, BASE jumping is significantly more dangerous than skydiving from a plane. In the U.S., BASE jumping is currently regarded by many as a fringe extreme sport or stunt.[3] In some jurisdictions or locations, BASE jumping is prohibited or illegal; in some places, however, it is permitted. BASE jumping became known to the wider public by depictions of BASE jumping in a number of action movies.

 

Self –assessment questions

1. What kind of ground-based tourism types do you know?

2. What kind of water tourism types do you know?

3. What kind of mountaineering tourism types do you know?

4. What kind of air-based tourism types do you know?

 

1. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013

 

2. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013

 

3. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010

 

4. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012

5. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011

 

6. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011

7. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014

 

 

№ 4 Preparation of tourists for tourism activities.

Plan of lecture:

1. Technical Preparation

2. Tactical Preparation

3. Psychological Preparation

Technical Preparation

The aim of technical preparation is to create and improve sports skills. Each sports skill has a given way of solving a motor task (contents of a sports skill) in accordance with the rules of a given sport, biomechanical rules and locomotive possibilities of the athlete which are referred to as technique. Specific individual adjustment of technique by an athlete is referred to as style.

Procedure of acquiring motor skills:

Sports skills are created on the basis of information on external and internal environment of the athlete and their synthesis into a complex image about the situation (skill) to be solved.

Creating such image is carried out on the basis of information acquired from senses (visual, audio, locomototive and positional) – perception.

By repeating, perceived situations are gradually being fixed into corresponding perception patterns.

Through afferent pathways, files with such information are transfered to CNS where they are further analysed in programming processes.

It is here that the neural basis of relevant program is formed.

The program is stored in the relevant memory.

Selected solution program is implemented by relevant structures of neural impulses which evoke relevant activities within skeletal muscles.

Gradually, structures of conditioned reflexes (movement stereotypes) in the form of motor patters are created.

By repetition, these patterns are being formed into independent neuro-physiological units (perception patters, programs of motor solutions).

To a certain extent, they are independent and can be combined into new units.

Stages of Technical Preparation

The process of learning motor skills is based on theoretical findings on motor learning.

Accomplishing the aim is conditioned by:

understanding the technique as a unity of its internal and external features

step-by-step procedure of its acquiring

stabilizing the technique

comprehensive conception (contents organization)

conscious activity of both the athlete and coach

The process of learning is not linear and even; it is a long-term process unlimited by time.

In practice, the following stages appear:

drill

improving

stabilization

Drill

Tasks:

learning the objectives of selected sports discipline

drilling the techical basics of relevant sports skills

This stage proceeds in the follow axis:

introduction (rules, feeling the water, ball etc.)

defining the task (couch’s input, athlete must identify him/herself with the image)

creating image

initial attempts (verifying the image under simplified conditions), repeating („repeating without repetitions“)

Improving

Tasks:

firming, improving and subsequent adjusting techniques in given specialization

gradual interconnection of technique and fitness requirements and physiological functions of the athlete

focussing the stage aims at further shaping the image

All information is integrated in a single unit of complex locomotive analyzer which is sport specific. Firming and improving is carried out through sophisticated repetitions of relevant exercises which lead towards automation. This stage continues to improve mainly kinematic (time and space) and dymanic (strength) parameters of motion structures. Techique should be gradually interconnected with its fitness basis and energy supply.

The main aim of this stage of technical preparation is final technique firming and stabilization.

Stabilization

Tasks:

firming and stabilization of sports skills complexes as units which are ready to be involved in programs for competitve activities of the athlete

mutual interconnection, combination and adjustments of these units to most demanding conditions under which sports activity is employed

attempts to firm and stabilize lead to another, more in-depth, uniting of technique, fitness, psyche and tactics into highly functional units

The substance of stabilizing technique in this stage lies in automation of relevant structures and actions of skills structures and their continuous adjusting to competition conditions.

Methods of Technical Preparation:

Methods: analytic, analytic-synthetic, concentration, dispersion.

Procedures: whole, from whole to part, from part to whole.

Tactical Preparation

It is necessary to differentiate between two terms:

strategy is understood as a pre-prepared plan of actions in a specific competition

the plan is defined by key strategy points (points in competition when the athlete makes decisions according to given strategy in so-called conflicting situations)

tactics further analyzes and shows possible solutions of individual competition situations (conflicting situations)

focuses on practical implementation of these situations within given plan (strategy)

tactics (individual, group, team, offensive, defensive)

Implementing tactical actions is carried out on the following axis:

perception and analysis (situation occurence – situation recognition – situation analysis)

mental solution (solution proposal – soluction selection)

movement solution (solution execution, feedback)

Tactics is being solved within competition situations which are characterized by conditions.

We can differentiate between two types of conditions:

fixed (sports ground, sports area, equipment etc.)

changing (referee, audience, route, ball bounce etc.)

Drilling Tactical Skills

Tactical skills are understood as certain procedures or models of competition situations solutions acquired by training.

Acquiring tactical skills presupposes influencing the athlete’s:

perception (space, rhythm, objects)

thinking and decision-making (analysis, synthesis, generalization, intuitive solutions – solutions outside the scope of perception)

knowledge (rules, organization of sports combat conduct, principles of tactical actions in specific situations, knowledge of strategy)

experience (memory, anticipation)

Principles of drilling tactical skills:

tactical skills are closely related to technique

there is a certain specific solution for each competition situation

theoretical background (algorithms, patterns) must be acquired before drilling itself

suggest solution to a situation when drilling and perhaps let athletes to discuss it

at first, teach without pushing, increase resistence and pressure (time, space, fatigue) after they handle individual parts

group skills (power play patterns) must be practised in an analytic way (in pairs or groups of three)

it is preferable to handle solving smaller number of situations with better quality

adjusting situation to expected competition conditions





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