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Keywords: technique, climbing, crossing




Plan of lecture:

1. The basic concepts of tourism techniques..

2. Techniques of bivouac work

3. crossing techniques.

The basic concepts of tourism techniques.

Technique of tourism - a multifaceted concept. In the very brief definition - is a set of techniques and equipment used to solve tourist problems.

Techniques - one or several interrelated activities with or without the use tehnicheskih funds.

The technical facilities include private or group camping equipment special technical purposes.

Technique is divided by type of tourism turizma. Each type of tourism used its own specific set of tehnicheskih tricks and techniques that form the distinctive features of this type of tourism equipment (Fig. 18). For example, the technique of overcoming natural obstacles. machinery insurance, machinery orienteering, equipment bivouac equipment and services rescue.

Elements of the art of a number of types of tourism are mutually intertwined and form the general principles of the art of tourism in general. Almost one technique used in hiking and mountain tourism.

All the equipment of tourism by means of tourist equipment, which belongs to the technical means. Personal equipment - equipment used tourist individually for personal overcoming natural obstacles or as a group. / poster №3 / Group equipment - equipment used by group members for travel, and the means used by several tourists. Special equipment used as a group and individually to address a specific type of obstacles, has specific features. / Poster number 3 /.

bivouac shelter is any of a variety of improvised camp sites such as those used in scouting and mountain climbing. It may often refer to sleeping in the open with a bivouac sack, but it may also refer to a shelter constructed of natural materials like a structure of branches to form a frame, which is then covered with leaves, ferns, and similar material for waterproofing and duff (leaf litter) for insulation. It is sometimes called a bivvy for short.

 

ingle-sided designs allow easy access and allow the heat of a fire into the shelters, while full roofed designs have much better heat retention. As a general rule the roof should be at least a foot thick and opaque to bright sunlight. Artificial bivouacs can be constructed using a variety of available materials from corrugated iron sheeting or plywood, to groundsheets or purpose-made hootchies (bashas). Although these have the advantage of being speedy to erect and resource efficient they have relatively poor insulation properties.

A basha (or "hootchie") is a simple tent, made from one or two sheets of waterproof fabric and some strong cord. Generally a basha is made of reinforced nylon with eyelets and loops or tabs located along all four sides of the sheet and sometimes across the two central lines of symmetry. The basha is an extremely versatile shelter that can be erected in many different ways to suit the particular conditions of the location. (The word also sometimes refers to a special type of bivouac sack.)

There are many different ways to put up a bivouac shelter. The most common method is to use one bivouac sheet as the roof of the shelter and a second as the groundsheet. The 'roof' flysheet is suspended along in its ridge line by a cord tied between two trees which are a suitable distance apart. The four corners of the flysheet are then either pegged out or tied down to other trees. Care must be taken to leave a gap between the ground and the sheet to ensure that there is enough air flow to stop condensation.

n times of heavy rainfall, swollen streams can provide a formidable problem for the mountain walker. And crossing them can present hazards far more serious than just wet feet.

Avoidance is the key – careful planning of a trip and good observation should almost eliminate the chances of a difficult crossing. However, local flooding is not always predictable and occasionally a wet crossing is necessary, particularly in remote parts of Scotland. Fast moving water can be powerful and difficult to exit from. The water will be cold and the river bed slippery and awkward. Downstream obstacles such as trees, waterfalls and boulder chokes may prove killers if anybody is swept away. Mountaineering equipment is not designed with swift water in mind and will generally hinder rather than help. And if things go wrong during a stream or river crossing there can be many potentially serious problems to deal with, such as a split party, communication difficulties, immersion hypothermia, loss of equipment, injury etc.

Choosing a site
If no alternatives exist, then you’ll have to cross. But site choice requires careful consideration of both the crossing point and downstream, where any swimmers will be swept. The ideal site will have slow flowing, shallow water. A narrow watercourse reduces the time spent in the water and keeps communication more practicable. A smooth, level streambed allows ease of footing and holds no hidden surprises. Low banks allow ease of access and egress. Unfortunately, the above criteria are often mutually exclusive, e.g. water accelerates through a narrow passage. However, even from a distance, potentially suitable sites may be identified. River bends should generally be avoided as water is channelled around the outside, causing erosion. The banks are often undercut and the cross-section of the river is uneven, with shallow, slow water flowing through the inside of the bend, and fast deep water accelerating around the outside.

Stay alert for downstream features. Trees, logs or debris jammed across the river can be very dangerous, especially if branches and twigs act as a strainer, trapping a swimmer below the water surface. Even when there are no obstructions other hazards may exist such as an accelerating series of drops leading into a dangerous waterfall.

Preparation
In a group situation all roles must be clearly understood by the party, and the co-coordinator should find a quiet place to brief the group. Even in informal situations, someone should assume this role to prevent misunderstanding. Then, prior to crossing clothing may be adjusted: Rucksack straps should be loosened, chest and hip belts undone. If someone does slip, the pack will protect the spine and if a swim results, a well-packed rucksack with poly bags inside will float. Boots should normally be worn with socks. Wet socks are inconvenient but not life threatening.
Loose trousers will hinder movement. Gaiters help tuck everything away.

Crossing techniques
All crossings carry an element of risk. Foot entrapment is one of the greatest dangers - if somebody falls backwards with a foot jammed between two boulders, water pressure can pull the head under and hold it down. The feet should generally point upstream and be placed carefully and firmly. If someone is swept downstream, the safest swimming method is to keep the feet up and downstream in order to protect the body. Other members should go downstream to help, the aim is for the rescuer to avoid getting wet. Ideally, a pole is offered for the swimmer to grab, trying to catch the swimmer directly involves greater risk.

Single person
It may be possible to cross one at a time; having the advantage that only one person is put at risk at any one time. But the solo walker lacks any back up and their only support is a stick or pole. You should face upstream, whilst leaning on the poles. The technique is to move one point at a time, maintaining one foot downstream of the other – a kind of shuffle step – and moving along sideways or diagonally like a crab. Presenting a low profile to the force of the water is important to reduce the build up of pressure.

Group crossings
Most groups will use techniques involving mutual support. However, the more in the water at one time, the greater the potential number to be swept away at once!

Line astern
The key to wading is to try and present as small a surface area to the current as possible. In this method, the leading person is supported by the people behind, who try to push downward on the shoulders or hips. This significantly reduces the likelihood of the leader’s feet being washed from under them. The eddy created by the leading person protects other members.

The group wedge
This technique requires the biggest and strongest people at the apex of the wedge, where they make a very effective eddy behind them. The rest of the group are protected from the main force of the current and can cross in relative ease. At least three people are needed. Any group method requires an appointed leader to co-ordinate movement. In a formal leadership situation, it may be appropriate for the leader to accompany each group. However, if the leader is unhappy about making a solo return this method is inappropriate. A dry run is a good precaution, ensuring that everyone understands the procedure.

Using a rope
The use of a rope should only be considered as a last resort, because it can provide a very effective way of drowning someone if used inappropriately. Research into methods of dealing with safety in swift moving water has demonstrated that the security offered by a rope is often illusory. However, there are times when the easiest crossing point is situated above serious terrain and it is vital to avoid the potential for people being swept downstream. There are two common methods; the Open V and Downstream diagonal. These are beyond the scope of this piece.

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Recommended books:

1. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013

 

2. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013

 

3. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010

 

4. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012

5. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011

 

6. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011

7. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014

 

№ 11Tactics of active types of tourism.

Aim of lecture:. Introduce students with the tactics of active kinds of tourism





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