Keywords: technique, climbing, crossing
Plan of lecture:
1. The basic concepts of tourism techniques..
2. Techniques of bivouac work
3. crossing techniques.
The basic concepts of tourism techniques.
Technique of tourism - a multifaceted concept. In the very brief definition - is a set of techniques and equipment used to solve tourist problems.
Techniques - one or several interrelated activities with or without the use tehnicheskih funds.
The technical facilities include private or group camping equipment special technical purposes.
Technique is divided by type of tourism turizma. Each type of tourism used its own specific set of tehnicheskih tricks and techniques that form the distinctive features of this type of tourism equipment (Fig. 18). For example, the technique of overcoming natural obstacles. machinery insurance, machinery orienteering, equipment bivouac equipment and services rescue.
Elements of the art of a number of types of tourism are mutually intertwined and form the general principles of the art of tourism in general. Almost one technique used in hiking and mountain tourism.
All the equipment of tourism by means of tourist equipment, which belongs to the technical means. Personal equipment - equipment used tourist individually for personal overcoming natural obstacles or as a group. / poster №3 / Group equipment - equipment used by group members for travel, and the means used by several tourists. Special equipment used as a group and individually to address a specific type of obstacles, has specific features. / Poster number 3 /.
bivouac shelter is any of a variety of improvised camp sites such as those used in scouting and mountain climbing. It may often refer to sleeping in the open with a bivouac sack, but it may also refer to a shelter constructed of natural materials like a structure of branches to form a frame, which is then covered with leaves, ferns, and similar material for waterproofing and duff (leaf litter) for insulation. It is sometimes called a bivvy for short.
ingle-sided designs allow easy access and allow the heat of a fire into the shelters, while full roofed designs have much better heat retention. As a general rule the roof should be at least a foot thick and opaque to bright sunlight. Artificial bivouacs can be constructed using a variety of available materials from corrugated iron sheeting or plywood, to groundsheets or purpose-made hootchies (bashas). Although these have the advantage of being speedy to erect and resource efficient they have relatively poor insulation properties.
A basha (or "hootchie") is a simple tent, made from one or two sheets of waterproof fabric and some strong cord. Generally a basha is made of reinforced nylon with eyelets and loops or tabs located along all four sides of the sheet and sometimes across the two central lines of symmetry. The basha is an extremely versatile shelter that can be erected in many different ways to suit the particular conditions of the location. (The word also sometimes refers to a special type of bivouac sack.)
There are many different ways to put up a bivouac shelter. The most common method is to use one bivouac sheet as the roof of the shelter and a second as the groundsheet. The 'roof' flysheet is suspended along in its ridge line by a cord tied between two trees which are a suitable distance apart. The four corners of the flysheet are then either pegged out or tied down to other trees. Care must be taken to leave a gap between the ground and the sheet to ensure that there is enough air flow to stop condensation.
n times of heavy rainfall, swollen streams can provide a formidable problem for the mountain walker. And crossing them can present hazards far more serious than just wet feet.
Avoidance is the key – careful planning of a trip and good observation should almost eliminate the chances of a difficult crossing. However, local flooding is not always predictable and occasionally a wet crossing is necessary, particularly in remote parts of Scotland. Fast moving water can be powerful and difficult to exit from. The water will be cold and the river bed slippery and awkward. Downstream obstacles such as trees, waterfalls and boulder chokes may prove killers if anybody is swept away. Mountaineering equipment is not designed with swift water in mind and will generally hinder rather than help. And if things go wrong during a stream or river crossing there can be many potentially serious problems to deal with, such as a split party, communication difficulties, immersion hypothermia, loss of equipment, injury etc.
Choosing a site
Stay alert for downstream features. Trees, logs or debris jammed across the river can be very dangerous, especially if branches and twigs act as a strainer, trapping a swimmer below the water surface. Even when there are no obstructions other hazards may exist such as an accelerating series of drops leading into a dangerous waterfall.
The group wedge
Using a rope
1. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013
2. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013
3. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010
4. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012
5. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011
6. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011
7. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014
№ 11Tactics of active types of tourism.
Aim of lecture:. Introduce students with the tactics of active kinds of tourism
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