Главная | Обратная связь | Поможем написать вашу работу!

Exercise 1. Read the passage and then underline the information that answers these questions.

a) How many children study at home in the United States?

b) Why do some parents prefer to teach their own children?

c) How do the Gutersons choose what to teach their children?

d) What are two criticisms of home schooling?


Although education is compulsory in the United States, it is not compulsory for all children to get their education at school. A number of parents believe that they can provide a better education for their chil­dren at home. Children who are educated at home are known as "home-schoolers." There are about 300,000 home-schoolers in the United States today. Some parents prefer teaching their children at home because they do not believe that public schools teach the correct religious values; oth­ers believe they can provide a better educational experience for their children themselves. Interestingly, results show that home-schooled children tend to do better than average on national tests in reading and math.

David Guterson is an American writer. He and his wife teach their three children themselves. Guterson says that his children learn very differently from children in a regular school. Learning starts with the children's interests and questions. For example, when there is heavy snowfall on a winter day, it may start a discussion or reading about cli­mate, snow removal equipment, Alaska, polar bears, and winter tourism. Or a spring evening, when the family is watching the stars, is a good time for setting up a telescope and asking questions about satellites, comets, meteors, and the space program. At dinner, if the Brazilian rain forests are on the news, it could be a perfect time to get out the atlas and ency­clopedia. Then there might be two hours or more of eating, asking ques­tions, looking up answers, discovering how rain forests influence the cli­mate, what the "greenhouse effect" is, how deserts are formed, and how the polar ice caps affect ocean levels.

Although home schooling offers an experience that is often more interesting than regular schools, critics point out that home-schoolers miss out on many important things. The home-schooler is an outsider who, because he or she never attended school, might be uncomfortable mixing with other people in adult life. Critics also say that most parents are not well qualified to teach their children and may pass on their own narrow views to their children.



compulsory education — обязательное обучение

snow removal equipment — оборудование для уборки снега

to provide — дать, обеспечить

an outsider — не посещающий школу; посторонний наблюда­тель


Exercise 2. Discussion. Express your own point of view. What do you think about home schooling? Would you be a home-schooler?



Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.

Higher education in America is provided by colleges and universities. The main difference between a college and a university is that the latter is a collection of colleges each of which specializes in a different field.

There are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to go to both private and State universities. Private universities are generally smaller but very expensive, which means that the tuition fees are extremely high. State colleges and universities are not that expensive, the tuition fees are usually lower, and if the students are State residents, they pay much less.

American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called "campus", with teaching blocks, libraries and many other facilities grouped together on one site, often on the outskirts of the city. Some universities are comprised of many campuses. The University of California, for example, has 9 campuses.

In the American system, there are no final examinations at colleges and universities. Students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject. The first two years of student's studies are generally. In the third and fourth years of study, the student specializes in one or perhaps two subject fields.

At the conclusion of studies a college or university grants a bachelor’s degree (a Bachelor of Arts (B. A.) or a Bachelor of Science (B. S.)). After one or two additional years of studies – a master’s degree (Master of Arts (M. A.) or a Master of Science (M.S.)). The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). It may take a number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree.



Table 2

College Age Degree Length of Time
Junior college 18-   Two-year degree
College 18- BA,BS 4—5 years
Graduate school 22- MA.MS 2—3 years plus thesis
    PhD 3 years plus dissertation
Medical school   MD.DDS 4 years plus residency
Law school   JD 3 years
BA = Bachelor of Arts BS = Bachelor of Science MA = Master of Arts MS = Master of Science PhD = Doctorate (Professor) MD = Doctor DDS = Dentist JD = Lawyer


Exercise 2. True or false?

  1. Higher education is provided only by universities in America.
  2. Students have to pay in order to enter not only private but also State universities.
  3. American universities and colleges are usually built as a “campus".
  4. In the American system there are final examinations at colleges and universities.
  5. Students receive a bachelor’s degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject.
  6. The highest academic degree is the Academician.

Exercise 3. Translate into English:

Оплата за обучение, степень бакалавра (магистра), степень доктора философских наук, пригород, специализироваться, коренной житель штата, отдельный комплекс, частный университет, государственный колледж, исследовательская работа, получить степень, главное отличие, обеспечивать.


Exercise 4. Retell the text using the following questions:

  1. What is higher education in America provided by?
  2. What is the main difference between a college and a university?
  3. How many colleges and universities are there?
  4. What can you say about the tuition fees at private and public universities?
  5. How are American universities and colleges usually built?
  6. Are there any final examinations at colleges and universities?
  7. How do students receive a degree?
  8. When is study generally and specialized?
  9. When do students receive a bachelor’s (master’s) degree?
  10. What is the highest academic degree?




Task. Read and translate the text.

Part I


The history of education in the United States has certain peculiarities which are closely connected with the specific conditions of life in the New World and the history of the American society.

The early Colonies and different politics of education for the first white settlers who came to North America from Europe in the 17th century brought with them the educational ideas of the time most typical of the countries they represented. In Virginia and South Carolina, for example, education was entirely private. The children of the rich either had tutors or were sent to Europe for schooling. Many of the children of poor parents had no education at all. In Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York many of the schools were set up and controlled by the church.

In Massachusetts, which was much more developed at that time, three educational principles were laid down: 1) the right of the State or Colony to require that its citizens be educated; 2) the right of the State to compel the local governmental divisions, such as towns and cities, to establish schools; and 3) the right of the local government to support these schools by taxation.

At the very beginning, school buildings were often rough shacks. They were poorly equipped with a few benches, a stove, and rarely enough textbooks. Discipline was harsh, and corporal punishment was frequent.

The program of studies consisted largely of reading, writing, basic arithmetic, and Bible lessons. Since each community was responsible for solving its own educational problems, there was no attempt to find a common standard of excellence. Even the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, contained no direct mention of education.

The schools of the early 1800s were not very different from those of the pre-revolutionary period. Some historians consider that they actually deteriorated in the three or four decades following the American Revolution, for the new country turned its attention to the development of its land, cities, and political institutions.

And yet, in attempt to generate interest in education, a number of communities continued founding schools. Some classes were opened to children for secular instruction and a number of schools for poor children which were a forerunner of the public schools in several major cities. Some States tax-supported schools and urged their spread.


Part II

The purpose of the public or "common" schools was to teach the pupils the skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. No particular religion was to be taught.

By the mid-19th century, the desire for free public education was widespread. But the States could not find enough means for its financial support. It was during those years that communities began to support the schools within their boundaries. The States finally required local school districts to tax themselves for that purpose through the "real property" tax. This tax originated as financial support for public schools, and remains today the major financial resource for the public school system in the United States though it can no longer carry the entire burden.

Towards the second part of the 19th century compulsory attendance laws came into effect, starting with Massachusetts in 1852. Now in most States the minimum age at which a pupil may leave school is sixteen; in five States seventeen; and in four States eighteen.

As has already been mentioned, education remains primarily a function of the States. Each State has a board of education, usually 3 to 9 members, serving mostly without pay. They are either elected by the public or appointed by the Governor. The board has an executive officer, usually called a State school superintendent or commissioner. In some cases he is elected; in others he is appointed by the board.

In theory, responsibility for operating the public education system is local. Schools are under the jurisdiction of local school board, composed of citizens elected by residents of the school district. In fact, however, much local control has been superseded. State laws determine the length of the school year, the way in which teachers will be certified, and many of the courses which must be taught.

Though the Federal Government has no powers at all in the field of education, from time to time Congress passes different Acts which help to "assist in the expansion and improvement of educational programs to meet critical national needs". Such Acts provide money for science, mathematics, and language instruction; for the purchase of laboratory equipment.





Воспользуйтесь поиском по сайту:

©2015 - 2024 megalektsii.ru Все авторские права принадлежат авторам лекционных материалов. Обратная связь с нами...