Отличие причастия, герундия и отглагольного существительного
Алгоритм определения -ing форм:
1.Признаки отглагольного существительного:артикль, форма множественного числа, сочетание с прилагательным или причастием, стоит в ряду однородных существительных, имеет после себя определение с предлогом of. Если присутствует хотя бы один из вышеперечисленных признаков, то данная – ing форма – существительное. В этом случае нужно проверить значение этого слова по словарю, т.к. значение отглагольных существительных часто отличается от значения глаголов, от которых они образованы: to build – строить, но the building- здание; to say – сказать, the saying – поговорка. Если таковых признаков нет, то переходим к следующему пункту.
2.Признаки герундия:имеет перед собой притяжательное местоимение, имеет перед собой предлог. Если присутствует хотя бы один из вышеперечисленных признаков, то данная –ing форма – герундий. Если ни одного из признаков нет, то определяем функцию.
3. Если функция – определение или обстоятельство,то часть речи – причастие.
Упражнение 12.Определить часть речи, выраженную -ing формой.
1. The play is boring. 2. The loud singing was everywhere. 3. He showed the reforming force of collective. 4. When parking the car, he went into the hotel. 5. The grass needs cutting. 6. I’m tired of waiting for you. 7. He went along the street smiling happily. 8. The girl wearing the dress is my sister. 9. Do you mind my going there. 10.The knowing the subject is useful. 11. Being a stranger, he didn't know the way. 12. Dripping taps get on my nerves. 13. I insist on your having a rest. 14. He sat in an armchair smoking pipe.
Упражнение 13.Определите какой частью речи является -ing форма.
1. There has been a progressive weakening in our society of communal ideas of education. 2. And if the child were prevented from walking and talking, he could not develop normally. 3. Yet the crying of children is a problem in western countries. 4. We spend far more time speaking than writing or reading. 5. Each linguistic form has a constant and specific meaning. 6. We suppose that meanings are also different. 7. Project management software offers a number of advantages to business including the potential for significant savings by ensuring that projects are completed on time. 8. The mutually exclusive concept and various other rules for combining probabilities can be illustrated using this device. 9. And who is to be responsible for the teaching? 10. All these questions are considered from the viewpoint of the teaching profession. 11. The discipline affects moral understanding and behavior. 12. A human being is the most complicated piece of biological engineering in the world.
Упражнение 14.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на перевод -ing форм.
Next, use the Internet. Knowing what other people make and where they make it will give you a leg-up in negotiations. Once you know where you are and where other people are in terms of compensation, then figure out what you want. It doesn't have to just be salary," Veasy says. "Go for the whole package. If the company has just had a shaky quarter, consider oilier items you can negotiate – incentive compensation, stock options, an extra vacation week, personal days or education benefits. Use them to offset a lower raise offer. Consider timing when making your pitch, You can bolster your case by making your move when internal factors are favorablel. If your company considers raises every January, then that's the time to make your pitch. If you are just coming off a big achievement, however, you can use it to reinforce your value to the company. A company that has just posted big profits may also be more receptive to your request. Knowing your boss's schedule is important. You may want to put together a memo saying you want to meet to discuss your accomplishments," King says. That way you don't risk catching your boss at a bad time, Understanding your boss's personality also doesn't hurt. A nice guy boss may not respond well to a gangbuster approach. But if a gangbuster approach is required, figure out what your boss values. Some bosses value loyalty, others are by-the-number. For others, how well you get along with them may be important," Veasy says.
Инфинитив – это неличная форма глагола, обладает свойства-ми как глагольными, так и именными. На русский язык переводится существительным или глаголом. Инфинитив не имеет категорий лица, числа, времени. Инфинитиву свойственны категории временной отнесенности, залога, вида.
1.Simple Active Infinitive: to + глагол – to play
I want to speak. I must go and see him in a day or two. It was pleasant to speak to him.
2. Simple Passive Infinitive: to be + 3 форма глагола to be played
There is only one thing to be done. Peter is glad to be invited by me.
3. Perfect Active Infinitive:to have +3 форма глагола – tо have played
I'm glad to have seen you. Everybody must have gone to bed.
4. Perfect Passive Infinitive:to have been +3 форма глагола – to have been played
The house appeared to have been repaired recently.
5. Progressive Infinitive:to be + 4форма глагола – to be playing
She appeared to be listening. It was pleasant to be driving the car.
6. Perfect Progressive Infinitive: to have been + 4форма глагола – to have been playing
For the last few days she seemed to have been talking to nobody. They seem to have been readingthis book for a long time.
Инфинитив обычно употребляется с частицей to, но в ряде случаев частица to не употребляется:
1. После вспомогательных глаголов will (shall), should, would, can, may, must и др.:
Can I help you? She must see the doctor. Will you wait for me?
2. В оборотах had better, would rather:
You had better ask the policeman. – Вам лучше бы спросить полицейского.
I would rather do my homework in the lab. – Я предпочел бы сделать домашнее задание в лаборатории.
3. В сложном дополнении после глаголов-сказуемых to see, to hear, to notice, to watch, to feel, to make, to let:
I saw him cross the street. – Я видел, как он переходил улицу.
Функции инфинитива в предложении:
1. Подлежащее: To work in the park is pleasant.
1.1. Часть сложного подлежащего: The delegation is expected to arrive tomorrow.
2.1. Часть составного именного сказуемого: Our task is to master the English language.
2.2. Часть составного глагольного сказуемого: They continued to discuss the matter.
2.3. Часть составного модального сказуемого: You must say it now.
3. Дополнение: I want to invite you.
3.1. Часть сложного дополнения: I’d like you to join us.
4. Определение: He had a great wish to see his girl-friend again.
5.1. Цели: He went to the airport to meet his brother.
5.2. Следствия: He was too tired to listen to her.
Упражнение 1. Найдите в предложениях инфинитив и пере-ведите их.
1. I have done all I could to help him. 2. He agreed to help us. 3. What makes you look like that? 4. To invite friends and to go with them for a walk was his favourite entertainment. 5. The next evening I went to see his house. 6. The old woman's favourite occupation is to watch the children play. 7. I am too busy to go there more than once a week. 8. This is a good place to rest.
Упражнение 2.Переведите предложения, определяя формы инфинитива.
1. I was going to ask to come with us. 2. I've been asked to spend a year in Norway. 3. He seemed to be looking for words to express this idea. 4. For a quarter of an hour I must have been writing. 5. I’m sorry to have been of so little assistance. 6. It must have been a dream, you were smiling. 7. It was a city to remember. 8. Ilike my cooking to be eaten immediately. 9. You can hand in your composition. 10. He can't help you. 11. My son likes to read books. 12. The letter needed to be answered but I forgot to do it. 13. The captain was the last man to leave the ship. 14. It is necessary for you to know the truth. 15. To save the child he rushed into the burning house. 16. Tom seems to be writing something. 17. He seems to have been writing for an hour already. 18. We saw the guests enter the house. 19. He is considered to be a clever man. 20. My sister seems to enjoy her trip very much.
Упражнение 3.Вставьте частицу –to, где необходимо.
A. 1. The teacher made me … repeat the sentence again. 2. You ought not … show your feelings. 3. I’d rather … walk a little before going to bed. 4. The brave boy helped the partisans … find the way to the railway line. 5. I must … ask for her permission. 6. I like ... play the piano. 7. My brother can ... write poems. 8. We had ... put on our overcoats because it was cold. 9. They wanted ... cross the river. 10. It is high time for you ... go to bed. 11. May I ... use your telephone. 12. They heard the girl ... cry out with joy. 13. I would rather ... stay at home today. 14. He did not want ... play in the yard anymore. 15. Would you like… go to England? 16. You look tired. You had better... go home. 17. I wanted ... speak to Nick, but could not ... find his telephone number. 18. It is time ... get up. 19. Let me ... help you with your homework. 20. I was planning ... do a lot of things yesterday. 21. I'd like ... speak to you.22. I think I will be able ... solve this problem. 23. What makes you ... think you are right? 24. I will ... do all I can ... help you. 25. I like ... dance. 21. I'd like ... dance. 26. She made me ... repeat my words several times. 27. She did not let her mother ... go away. 28. Do you ... listen to good music? 29. That funny scene made me ... laugh.
B. 1. The boy helped us ... find the way to the railway station. 2. He would sooner...die, than ... betray his friends. 3. Why not ... start out now? We cannot… wait for the rain ... stop. 4. You may ... come and ... dine with us. 5. Don't let us ... get worried. There are a hundred things ... be done. 6. We had better... make haste. 7. You ought not ... speak to the Dean like that. 8. What made you ... think so? 9. "Thanks," Andrew answered, "I'd rather... see the cases myself."
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, определите функцию инфинитива.
1. He came into the room to shut the windows. 2. The British museum is too big to be seen in a day. 3. I think the best way to get a general idea of a country is to study a map. 4. You may fail in your English if you go on like that. 5. To know the map well means to be able to show any country or town on it. 6. Here are some letters to be answered today. 7. Radio waves are used to perform many services related to communication. 8. The first man to invent the radio was A. Popov, a Russian scientist. 9. We are glad to have followed our supervisor's advice. 10. It was pleasant to be listening to this singer again. 11. The students were grateful to have been given such an interesting task. 12. He remembers to have been walking in the forest for about a week before he met people.
Упражнение 5.Выполните предложения по модели:
Model: They sent me to University. They wanted me to study law. – They sent me to University to study law.
1. I am buying bread, I want to feed the bird. 2. He opened the door. He intended to goal 3. He rushed into the burning house. He wanted to save the child. 4. He rang the bell. He wanted to tell us that the dinner was ready. 5. The farmer shot the rifle. He wanted to frighten the birds. 6. He sent his children to his sister's house. He wanted them to watch the television programme. 7. I am saving up. I want to buy a car. 8. I keep my hens in a field surrounded by wire netting. I want to protect them against the foxes.
Упражнение 6.Переведите предложения.
1. Идти в кино было слишком поздно. 2. Моей обязанностью было готовить чай по утрам и вечерам. 3. Не забудьте принять таблетки от головной боли. 4. Я слишком слаба, чтобы идти туда одной. 5. Он достаточно опытен, чтобы выполнить эту работу в срок. 6. Он встал, чтобы уйти. 7. Пойдите и найдите кого-нибудь еще, кто мог бы помочь вам.
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