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по теме «неличные формы глагола»




1. Определите форму причастия и переведите предложения:

1. Engineers working at big plant in the country are trained at our University. 2. The course of lecture prepared by our professor is very useful in students' practical work. 3. Being invited Sofia reported to her mother. 4. Great plants producing computers are equipped with modern machinery.

 

2. Определите функцию герундия и переведите предложения:

1. After leaving the room he remembered that he had left the key. 2. Before objecting to my suggestion you ought to think them over. 3. There is no possibility of finding his address. 4. Reading aloud is useful. 5. I like your sister's singing.

 

3. Определите какой частью речи являются -ing формы:

1. There is no excuse for his doing such a thing. 2. She wrote the letter without my knowing it. 3. While learning the pronunciation of the word we learned their meaning. 4. The actor performing the leading part is very talanted. 5. I found the old man sitting in the armchair. 6. I was awakened by their loud talking.

 

4. Установите функцию инфинитива:

1. He went to the library to get this book. 2. We sometimes stay at our University after classes to discuss the news. 3. To be in time for our lectures you must get up early. 4. He was said to visit his mother this week. 5. I saw them sit around the table and speak on this subject.

 

5. Вставьте частицу -to-, где это необходимо:

1. You'd rather … ask the policeman, then ... help me. 2. My brother wants ... tell me good-bye. 3. You can... trust your friend. 4. The mother made her child ... put the shoes on.

 

Инфинитивные обороты

 

В английском языке существует два инфинитивных оборота: Complex Object (сложное дополнение) и Complex Subject (сложное подлежащее).

Complex Object обычно состоит из существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива с to или без to, что зависит от глагола-сказуемого:

He wants you to help him. I saw Peter give her the letter.

Конструкция Complex Object чаще всего переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами: что, чтобы, как.

1) Конструкция Complex Object с to употребляется после глаголов:

– обозначающих умственную деятельность: to think, to consider, to believe, to know в значении «считать, полагать», to expect – ожидать, to suppose – полагать, предполагать, to understand и др.:

I understood him to tell the truth. We consider Helen to be a friend.

– выражающих желание: to wish, to want, to desire, could (would) like:

I wish the matter to be settled today.

– обозначающих принуждение, просьбу, приказ, разрешение: to order-приказывать, to allow-разрешать, to command, to ask в значении «просить»:

He allowed the children not to go to bed.

2) Конструкция Complex Object без частицы to употребляется:

– после глаголов физического восприятия: to see, to watch, to notice, to hear, to feel: Mother likes to watch him play tennis. I saw him cross the street.

– to make, to let: The teacher made her repeat the sentence. I let the children play the piano.

The Complex Subject – это инфинитивный оборот, который состоит из грамматического подлежащего и инфинитива, стоящего после сказуемого, выраженного личной формой глагола:

He is expected to come back tonight. He is known to be preparing for exam.

The delegation is known to have left for home.

1. Глаголы-сказуемые to know, to believe, to consider, to report, to say, to see, to hear в конструкции Complex Subject употребляются in Passive Voice:

He is said to prefer skiing to skating.

2. Глаголы-сказуемые to seem, to appear, to happen, to prove, to turn out употребляются in Active Voice: Do you happen to know his sister's name?

3. Выражения to be likely-вероятно, to be unlikely-маловероятно, to be certain, to be sure: Their plans are likely to change in the future. We are certain to agree with you.

 

Упражнение 1. Употребите в предложениях конструкцию Complex Object, используя слова, данные в скобках.

l. Your enthusiasm makes (I, to feel) young again. 2. I know (the man, to be) a good doctor many years ago. 3. Mother used to watch (we, to play) tennis. 4. People who know her felt (she, to be) a woman of strong will. 5. I understood (my sister, to speak) English well. 6. The teacher allow (the students, to use) the computer during the class. 7. I wish (he, to stay) with me. 8. He made (I, to do) it all over again. 9. He made (she, to repeat) the message. 10. If you want (we, to get) there before dark you should let (we, to start) at once. 11. Would you like (I, to go) now? 12. They won't let (we, to leave) the customs till our luggage has been examined. 13. I'd like (he, to go) to the University but I can't make (he, to go). 14. I want (she, to learn) English. 15. I heard (the door, to open) and saw (a shadow, to move) across the floor. 16. I saw (you, to smile). 17. She expects (her husband, to pay) all the household expenses. 18. The teacher advised (we, to use) dictionaries. 19. Her father doesn't allow (she, to go) to the cinema alone.

 

Упражнение 2.Ответьте на вопросы, используя Complex Object.

1. Would you like me to read or to retell the story. 2. When do you expect the translation to be finished? 3. Which direction did you notice them go? 4. When did you order dinner to be served?

 

Упражнение 3.Найдите конструкцию Complex Object, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I wanted him to be present at the lecture. 2. She wanted the child to wash his hands before dinner. 3. The teacher wanted the boy to behave better. 4. I have often heard him tell the story. 5. Do you expect us to believe you? 6. She made me turn looking critically at my dress. 7. I consider them to be right. 8. I’d like my friend to be honest with me. 9. She heard the child cry. 10. He felt himself shiver. 11. When I came I found my friend wait for me. 12. I believed him to know the subject well. 13. I expected my friend to write an article for the conference. 14. They wanted us to tell them about the results of our research work. 15. Every mother wants her child to be well educated. 16. I wanted the work to be done properly. 17. I didn't want my report to be discussed there. 18. I know the student to live in Pembroke Street. 19. I know this girl to be fond of music. 9. I know the performance to be a success. 20. He knows them to have met by accident. 21. We know this famous person to have studied at our University. 22. I know the delegation to have left for St. Petersburg.

 

Упражнение 4.Найдите конструкцию Complex Subject, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Margaret was heard to argue with Howard. 2. James was said to avoid Alice. 3. Edward is believed to have left for Sofia 4. Mr. Jones wasknown to have lived in Cairo for along time, 5. Christine wasexpected to write them in Amsterdam. 6. Ann is expected to retain from Dublin tomorrow. 7. Mr. McDonald is believed to have lived in Sweden for over ten years. 8. Nora’s behaviour was found to be suspicious. 9. Mr. Smith was known to have flown from Athens to Berlin. 10. Mr. Hastings was considered to know Copenhagen well, 11. The ambassador wasreported to have resumed to Mdftnim 12. Victoria was thought to be rather selfish 13. The presidentwas reported to have made a speech at Cairo airport. 14. Mr. Johnson is considered to be a lawyer. 15. Mr. Huxley is believed to know five languages. 16.The country is known to export oil. 17. English is known to have adopted a lot of French words. 18. He is believed to know that country very well. 19. Mr. Hook wasbelieved to beliving in Holland.

 

Упражнение 5. Найдите в предложениях конструкцию Complex Object или Complex Subject. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I had seen my father leave the house that very morning. 2. I've never known a girl spend so much time on make up. 3. Professor Lee was expected to join the expedition in North Africa. 4. He is said to have been a sailor in his youth. 5. She felt somebody touch her by hand. 6. I thought it to be the signal to start. 7. Mary seemed to expect an answer. 8. He was heard to say that it would rain and ordered the door to the balcony to be shut.

 

Упражнение 6.Переведите предложения.

1. Известно, что он живет в Москве. 2. Мы слышали, что ты работал в летнем лагере. 3. Я думал, что эту книгу написал Дж. Олдридж. 4. Сообщается, что делегация посетит столицу этой страны. 5. Она заставила брата сказать правду. 6. Лекция по маркетингу, вероятно, будет прочитана завтра. 7. Говорят, что многие книги Пушкина переведены на другие языки. 8. Ожидают, что он подготовит доклад по математике на конференцию.

 

 

СЛОЖНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ

(the complex sentence)

Сложные предложения делятся на две основные группы: сложносочинённое и сложноподчинённое.

Сложносочиненное предложение состоит из простых предло­жений, каждое из который сохраняет значение самостоятельного предложения, т.е. эти предложения не зависят друг от друга и могут отделяться запятой. Средством связи таких предложений служат сочинительные союзы: and- и,a; but – но; or – или и др.:

The teacher corrects our mistakes, explains them and it helps us to master the English language.

Сложноподчинённое предложение состоит из главного и при­даточного, которое служит для пояснения главного. Присоеди-няются придаточные предложения к главному союзными словами, местоиме­ниями и наречиями: who – кто, what – что, which,that – который, where – где, when – когда, а также подчинительными союзами: that-что, as -так как, because – потому что, if – если и др.

The students who pass the exams successfully get a scholarship.

Придаточные предложения могут присоединиться к главному без союза: I know this man is a well-known teacher.

Виды придаточных предложений. Существует столько же видов придаточных предложений, сколько имеется членов предложения.

1. Придаточные предложения-подлежащие. Они выполняют функцию подлежащего и отвечают на вопрос who? – кто? what? – что? Они соединяются с главным предложением союзами that – что, whether – ли, союзными словами who(whom) – кто (кого),whose – чей, what – что/какой: That this question is important is clear. – То, что этот вопрос важен –понятно.

2. Придаточные предложения-сказуемые. Они выполняют функцию именной части составного сказуемого, соединяются с главным предложе­нием теми же союзами, союзными словами, что и придаточные пред­ложения-подлежащие: The difficulty is whether we will be able to solve this question without his help. – Трудность заключаётся в том, будем ли мы всостоянии разрешить этот вопрос без его помощи.

3. Придаточные предложения дополнительные. Они выполняют функции дополнения, отвечают на вопрос what-что?, чаще всего вводится союзом that – что: I know that he is in the foreign language room. – Я знаю, что он в кабинете иностранных языков. Обратите внимание, союз that – что, присоединяющий дополнительные придаточные предложения к главному, в английском языке часто опускается: I know he is in Moscow. – Я знаю, что он в Москве.

4. Придаточные предложения времениотвечают на вопросы when?, how long? и присоединяются к главному предложению союзами и союзными словами: when – когда; while – в то время как, пока; as – когда, по мере того как; as soon as – как только; аs long as – пока; before – прежде чем; after – после того как; since – с тех пор как: When children are at the age of 16,compulsory education finishes. – Когда детям исполняется 16 лет, обязательное образование заканчивается.

5. Придаточные предложения места отвечают на вопрос where? where from? и вводятся союзными словами: where – где, wherever – где быни, куда бы ни: Wherever he went he always visited museums and art galleries.

6. Придаточные предложения причины отвечает на вопрос why? почему? и вводятся союзами because – потому что, since – поскольку, так как, as – так как: He could not come to the lecture because he was ill. – Он не мог прийти на лекцию, так как был болен.

7. Придаточные предложения цели отвечают на вопрос what for? для чего? for what purpose? какой целью? и вводятся сою­зами so(that),in order that – так для того чтобы.

I’ll give you this book so that you may read it at home. – Я дам вам книгу, чтобы вы смогли прочитать её дома.

8. Придаточные предложения определительныеотвечают на вопрос which, what в значении «какой». Они вводятся союзными словами: who, whom – который, whose – чей, which, that: The girl about whom you ask me is a second-year student. Девушка, о которой ты меня спрашивал, студентка второго курса.

 

СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН

Помните! Правила согласования времён в дополнительных придаточных предложениях должны быть соблюдены.

Правило 1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения может стоять в любом, требуемом по смыслу, времени:

He knows, that he enters the Cherepovets State University.

Он знает, что он поступает в Череповецкий Государственный Университет.

He knows, that I tookentrance exams a year ago. Он знает, что я сдавал вступительные экзамены год назад.

He knows, that she will work as an economist next year. Он знает, что она будет работать экономистом в следующем году.

Правило 2. Если же сказуемое главного предложения стоит в любом прошедшем времени, то сказуемое при­даточного предложения тоже должно стоять в одном из прошедших времён:

He knew, he entered the Cherepovets State University. Он знал, что он поступает в Череповецкий Государственный Университет.

He knew, I took /had taken entrance exams a year before. Он знал, что я сдавал вступительные экзамены год назад.

He knew, that she would work as an economist the next year.

Он знал, что она будет работать экономистом в следующем году.

 

Упражнение 1.Определите тип придаточного предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. He must go or he may be late. 2. She wanted to come and see her friend, but she was very busy. 3. On graduating our students receive diplomas which give them the right to teach at school. 4. My mother studied at the Teachers Training Institute which was named after A.V. Lunacharsky.

 

Упражнение 2.Определите тип сложного предложения и переведите на русский язык.

1. Students who enter the Universities are to take state exames. 2. Outside of these state-maintained schools which provide free education there are also the fee-paying private independent schools. 3. Sholokhov lived all his life in the village and it was there where he wrote his immortal masterpieces. 4. English is the most popular language in our country, but lately there has been increasing interest in Spanish. 5. Our country has published all the American 19-20th century classics, whose names are mentioned in US secondary school textbooks.

 

Упражнение 3.Переведите предложения, используя правило согласования времен.

1. My friend asked me if I knew any English teachers-innovators. 2. He said he would be back in a minute. 3. He said that our problem had been settled. 4. She said that a foreign delegation would be invited to the party. 5. They said they were afraid to be late for the lecture. 6. The teacher said that many English public schools were boarding schools.

 

Упражнение 4.Выберите из скобок правильную форму глагола, переведите предложения.

l. He said the novel (is, was) very interesting. 2. Mary said the weather forecast for the next day (is, was) bad. 3. He told her that many of the students (will go, would go) to the football ground the next day. 4. The boys say they always (have supported, had supported) Spartak. 5. Peter said he (will attend, would attend) the Music Festival if it (takes place, took place) the following June. 6. Miss Horn-by says that there (is, was) a message for Mr. Brown. 7. He said he (will finish, would finish) his new collec­tion of poems the following May.

 

Упражнение 5. Поставьте сказуемые главных предложений в прошедшее время. Сделайте все необходимые изменения.

1. We know that the children have passed the exams by this moment. 2. She promises to come to me after she has met them. 3. Everybody is sure that he will enter the University. 4. My friend is interested what he promised. 5. I know that they will pass the exams successfully. 6. Our students say that they are going to Moscow during their vocation.

 

Упражнение 6.Переведите предложения, определите видовременную форму глаголов придаточных предложений.

l. He said he had not heard anything about it. 2. He said that Peter had booked ti­ckets for the theatre the previous week. 3. Mr. Stone told me that the meeting would take place the following month. 4. He said the secretary had already phoned Mr. Brown. 5. Peter said that the Spartak players had scored three goals before the end of the first half. 6. He told them he would speak to Mr. Smith about it if he saw him the next day. 7. Jane said she would clean the rooms the next day. 8. Ann said she was going out that night. 9. She said she had attended Professor Davy's lecture the previous day. 10. Miss Brooks said that Mr. Dodd was speaking on the phone then. 11. She said her husband was manager in a big factory. 12. He said that Byron was born on January 22, 1788. 13. He said that he met Ann when he was going to the supermarket.

 

Упражнение 7.Выберите из скобок правильную форму обстоятельства времени, переведите предложения.

l. Mr. Brown said the manager would be back in London (tomorrow, the follow­ing day). 2. He says he enjoyed the film (yesterday, the previous day). 3. The secretary told Mr. Black that Mr. Brown had called him up (two hours ago, two hours before). 4. The secretary said Mr. Brown was having an appointment (now, then). 5. Mary says she will book tickets for the cinema (tomorrow, the next day). 6. The journalist said that Bondarev's new novel would be out (next month, the next month). 7. He said that he had finished his new collection of stories (last month, the previous month).

 

Упражнение 8.Определите тип придаточного предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. The doctor's advice was that my brother should go to the south immediately. 2. That the matter should have taken such a turn is not surprising. 3. We have never discovered who did it. 4. You may rely upon what he says. 5. I think he is in the library. 6. I shall ask him whether he will arrange it for me. 7. He isn't what he pretends to be. 8. I cannot understand why he did it. 9. I am not satisfied with what I have written. 10. The question is whether they will arrive in time to take part in this work. 11. I worked at the laboratory where new devices are tested. 12. Who is the best student in the group will be shown at the examination. 13. We went to the Institute museum, where there is a lot of information. 14. Our government set up many children's houses, colonies so that we could return children to normal human existence. 15. In the twenties it was necessary to set up colonies because many children had lost their parents during the Civil War.

 

Упражнение 9.Определите тип придаточного предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

l. This was what I wanted to do. 2. What you ask is impossible. 3. Whether he talked or not made little difference to me then. 4. May I ask how you heard this? 5. What we've got to decide now is whether we really trust him or not. 6. This is what he remembered. 7. The question is whether he'll go back on his word or not. 8. You know perfectly well this is not what I meant. 9. Which team wins does not concern us here. 10. I'm sorry that I allowed you to call on us. 11. Eric wondered whether Haviland was really the man. 12. Genius does what it must, and talent does what it can. 13. Then Harris, who was sitting near the window, looked out. 14. In the distance lay the park where the trees were covered with snow. 15. The lecturer dwelt on the fact he had mentioned prev­iously. 16. I saw everything there was to see. 17. I was back where I had been before. 18. To have the reputation of possessing the most perfect social tact, talk to every woman as if you loved her, and to every man as if he bored you.

 

Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения.

1. Мой друг сказал, что у него есть новые записи. 2. Мы спросили гида, был ли он когда-нибудь в Лондоне. 3. Вопрос был в том, поступил ли он в Университет. 5. Я узнала, что Алиса уже сдала экзамены. 6. Я сказал ему, что очень рад видеть его снова. 1. Мы вчера узнали, что она больна. 2. Он думал, что она не придёт в школу. 3. Я знал, что моя сестра изучает французский язык, и думал, что она поедет в Париж. 4. Мне сказали, что ты мне звонил. 5. Я думал, что ты в Москве. 6. Я не знал, что ты уже вернулся в Санкт-Петербург и полагал, что ты навестишь меня. 11. Мы не думали, что он так рассердится. 12. Мы надеялись, что поедем в Лондон. 13. Учитель сказал, что наши друзья прислали письмо из Лондона. 14. Она сказала, что её подруга пригласила её в театр. 15. Мы боялись, что не купим билета в театр. 16. Мы увидели, что дети играют в песке. 17. Она сказала, что больше не будет купаться, потому что волна холодная. 18. Мой дедушка сказал, что в молодости он любил кататься на коньках. 19. Моя двоюродная сестра сказала, что любит оперу и будет рада пойти с нами в театр, хотя уже дважды слушала «Травиату».

 

 

СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ

(the subjunctive mood)

Наклонение форма глагола, которая показывает отношение действия к действительности. Существует изъявительное, пове-лительное и условное наклонения. Изъявительное наклонение мы употребляем, когда говорим о действиях, происходящих в реальной действительности. Условное наклонение представляет действие как нереальное. Существует 3 типа условного наклонения.

 

I тип обозначает реальное выполнимое условие и относится к будущему времени, выражает изъявительное наклонение.

I will tell him about it if I see him tonight.

II тип обозначает реальное выполнимое условие и относится к настоящему или будущему времени, выражает условное наклонение.

I would tell him about it if I saw him tonight.

He would lend you some books if I asked him to.

I would be bathing nowif itwasn't /weren 't raining.

III тип обозначает нереальное невыполненное условие и относится к прошедшему времени, выражает условное наклонение.

I would have told him about it if I had seen him last night.

He would have dealt with the matter himself if you had told him about it last Tuesday.

Конструкция “I wish” (жаль, что…) строятся по II или III типу условных предложений.

 

I wish you were here. Жаль что тебя здесь нет.
I wish I had known your phone number. Жаль, что я не знал твой номер.
I wish I wouldn’t have missed lectures before the exam. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы я не пропускал лекции перед экзаменом. (Жаль, что я их пропустил).

Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения. Определите тип условных придаточных предложений.

1. If I were in Moscow, I should attend this exhibition. 2. If I had been free yesterday, I could have helped him to record the tape. 3. If he had been told about the meeting, he would have come to it. 4. If you had spoken more clearly, everyone would have understood you. 5. Had this student studied English well at school, he would not have required the dictionary. 7. I would give you the number of my room if I had one. 8. What would you do if he changed his mind? 9. If I only saw my benefactor, I would tell him how grateful I was. 10. If I didn't have a confirmed reservation, I wouldn't be there. 11. If you had informed us about it, we would not have reserved the hotel for the convention. 12. If my son hadn't made up his mind, I would have gone to the hotel. 13. If you lend him the book the day before yesterday, he would be prepared for today's lesson.

 

Упражнение 2.Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму.

1. If I had this tool, I (give) it to you. 2. If he worked more slowly, he (not make) so many mistakes. 3. I could give you his address if I (know) it. 4. He would have got fat if he (stop) smoking. 5. If he had known you were away, he (not come). 6. I (keep) a gardener if I could afford it. 7. What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors. 8. He (go) there if his family were invited. 9. The car wouldn't break so often if you (have) it serviced regularly.

 

Упражнение 3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму.

1. He'll sit for the examination next week if he (to be ready) by then. 2. The roads would be very bad if the temperature (to fall). 3. I'm afraid you won't be able to catch your train unless you (to leave) right now. 4. I would have bought some magazines to read on the train if I (to have) the company. 5. If I (to find) your Identify card, I would phone you at once. 6. She would have brought another book if you (not to like) it.

 

Упражнение 4. Составьте предложения, используя сослага-тельное наклонения.

1. Mr. Spark missed the bus. He walked to the station. 2. He walked to the station. He didn't catch his usual train. 3. He didn't catch his usual train. He went for a drink. 4. He went for a drink. He met an old friend. 5. He met an old friend. He didn't go straight home. 6. He didn't go straight home. His wife was very angry.

 

Упражнение 5.Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What would you take with you if you decided to go for a holiday by train (by plane, by car)? 2. What would you need to have with you if you decided to go on business trip? 3. How long would it take you if you came here by bus (by tram, by taxi, on foot)? 4. What would you do if your girl-friend (boy-friend) broke up with you.

 

 

КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ

(Reported speech)

 

Предложения в косвенной речи образуются по правилам согласования времен.

Утвердительные предложения:

He says, "I have seen your brother." – He says (that) he has seen my brother.

He said, "I went to see youyesterday." – He said he had gone to see them the day before.

 

Вопросительные предложения:

He asked: "Is he a doctor?" – Не asked if he was a doctor.

He asked: "Did they enjoy the film?" – He asked if they had enjoyed the film.

He asked: "What language does Peter know?" – He asked what language Peter knew.

He asked: "What are you doing now?" – He asked what I was doing then.

 

Повелительное наклонение в косвенной речи:

She said to me, "Tell him everything tomorrow." – She asked me to tell him everything the following day. He said: "Don't go to the cinema today." – He ordered me not to go to the cinema that day.

 

Упражнение 1. Выполните предложения по модели.

 

Model: А: The film impressed me greatly.

B: What did he say?

C: He said (that) the film had impressed him greatly.

 

A. 1 Jack London's northern stories made a great impression on me. 2. John has just gone on business to London. 3. Bill's brother has given up the college. 4. The weather is wonderful today. 5. They are interested in art. 6. She is making a living as a clerk.

B. 1) он не помнит номера моего телефона; 2) он не может пробыть в Киеве более двух дней; 3) они пойдут на стадион завтра, если купят билеты; 4) это случилось много лет тому назад; 5) прогноз погоды на завтра очень хороший; 6) она купит подарок для Петра сегодня, если у неё будет время; 7) она получила большое удовольствие от спектакля; 8) она не сможет присутствовать на встрече завтра.

Упражнение 2.Поставьте предложения прямой речи в косвенную.

1. "Is the Music Festival taking place in Edinburg now?" Mary asked him. 2. "What's the weather like in Moscow now?" Mr. Smith asked him. 3. She asked her brother: "Was it a cup game?" 4. "Are you tired?" she asked Jane. "Yes, I am," Jane answered. 5. "Can you help me translate this article today" John asked Bill. 6. "How long did you stay there?" John asked him. 7. "When shall we meet?" he asked Bill. 8. "What's the title of the book you are reading?" Mary asked Jane. 9. "Where shall we go for the week-end?" Jane asked her husband. 10. How long did it take them to complete the job? 11. When will the next match take place? 12. May I have breakfast now? 13. Will you be able to come to the party? 14. When did it happen? 15. What the score? 16. What hotel arethey going to stay at? 17. Who is the message from? .She said to me. 18. "We'll go skating tomorrow." 19. Ann said, "I've got the wrong number." 20. He said, "We'll complete the job if you help us." 21. The secretary said, "I've got a message from Mr Green." 22. Mr Nelson said, "Shaw was awarded the No­bel Prize for Literature in 1925." 23. The old man said to me, "It happened many years ago." 24. Mr Smith said, "They had lunch on the train two hours ago." 25. She said, "I'm leaving for London tomorrow."

 

Упражнение 3. Закончите предложения.

1. He asked me if... 2. She wondered how long ... 3. John asked Peter what... 4. Mr. Blackwood asked the secretary how many ... 5. She asked him what time ... 6. She wondered how much ... 7. He asked me if...

 

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения косвенной речи.

1) знает ли он прогноз погоды на завтра; 2) куда они собираются поехать в отпуск; 3) легко ли забронировать номер в гостинице; 4) что идет в кинотеатре; 5) сможем ли мы заехать к ним; 6) смогут ли они решить вопрос; 7) когда отходит поезд на Киев; 8) сколько времени он пробыл в Москве.

 

Упражнение 5.Поставьте предложения прямой речи в косвенную.

l. Take a seat, please. 2. Have a cup of tea, please. 3. Don't buy any oranges today. 4. Please clean the flat. 5. Please show me round the city tomorrow. 6. Don't break the appointment. 7. Don't be late for the theatre. 8. "Please don't call me up before Wednesday," Mr. Dobson said to him. 9. "Show Mr. Petrov in", Mr. Dodd said to the secretary. 10. "Ask Mr. Mitchell to wait for a little while," Mr. Smith said to the secretary. 11. "Don't send fine papers yet," he said to her. 12. 13. "Show me another pair of shoes," the customer said to the shop-assistant. 14. “Don't buy any bread today," mother said to her son. 15. "Don't come back very late," Peter said to his daughter. 16. "Please try on these shoes," the shop-assistant said to the customer.


 

Содержание

 

Введение ................................................................................................ 3

WORD ORDER

Порядок слов в простом предложении ................................................ 3

Вопросительные предложения ............................................................ 4

Глаголы to be, to have ........................................................................ 7

Местоимения it, one ............................................................................. 11

Имя существительное............................................................................ 12

Артикль ................................................................................................. 16

Имя прилагательное ............................................................................. 19

Местоимение ......................................................................................... 20

Имя числительное ................................................................................. 25

Дроби .................................................................................................... 26

Даты........................................................................................................ 27

Модальные глаголы ............................................................................. 27

Времена группы continuous (progressive) ............................................ 35

Времена группы Perfect ........................................................................ 39

Страдательный залог (passive voice) ................................................... 42

Способы перевода passive voice на русский язык ............................... 44

Неличные формы глагола .................................................................... 45

Причастие (The participle) .................................................................... 46

Независимый причастный оборот ....................................................... 50

Герундий (The gerund) .......................................................................... 53

Инфинитив (The infinitive) .................................................................... 61

Контрольные упражнения по теме «неличные формы глагола» ....... 63

Инфинитивные обороты ....................................................................... 66

Сложное предложение ......................................................................... 70

Согласование времен ............................................................................ 72

Сослагательное наклонение (the subjunctive mood) ............................ 76

Косвенная речь (Reported speech) ........................................................ 78

 


 

 

Печатается в авторской редакции

Технический редактор: М.Н. Авдюхова

Лицензия А № 165724 от 11 апреля 2006 г.

 
 


Подписано в печать 28.03.12. Тир. 4.

Уч.-изд. л. 4. Формат 60´84 1/16. Усл. п. л. 4,8.

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