The traditional concept of mountaineering
The original and fundamental concept of mountaineering. The traditional (sometimes called classic) approach to mountaineering influences a number of mountaineering disciplines. A decisive perspective for classifying these groups is the ethical perspective. The basic principle of traditional mountaineering is the requirement for natural terrain to remain in the same condition after our ascent as it was before our ascent. The idea of “fair play” towards the outdoors is strongly embedded in this principle. Aside from our relationship to nature, this is most commonly expressed in principles which require that a person proceed in a natural manner in his conduct. A person should perform the ascent using his abilities, whether his strength, agility, or stamina, and should not conquer nature (the terrain) using technical devices. The ascent should be a pure competition between human effort and the impassability of nature.
And yet in the hierarchy of values, human life and health trumps this ideal, and therefore in exceptional cases it is possible to change the natural environment minimally, e.g. by inserting a single piece of protection whose purpose is to prevent fatal injury.
One of the most significant specific attributes of the traditional approach to mountaineering is therefore a decrease in the use of permanent (fixed) protection in the rock. On the contrary, mobile protection such as knots, chocks, etc. are preferred. This attribute has the consequence that a person must not only have the physical prerequisites necessary to complete an ascent, but also the psychological, because the physical stress is significant when conducting traditional mountaineering. Here a person must be capable of resisting fear. Courage is not, however, the only necessary attribute. No less important is discretion, or more specifically humility combined with forethought.
The traditional concept
For the traditional forms of mountaineering the object is still to climb the entire route up to the summit of the mountain or tower, or some other logical point in the terrain. To finish 5 metres below the summit is the same as if nothing has been climbed at all.
Important regions for traditional mountaineering in Europe include the rocky terrain of Wales in Great Britain and the sandstone cliffs in Saxony and the Czech Republic. Naturally the primary domain of traditional mountaineering are the very high altitude mountains (Alps, etc.).
The gymnastic concept
The gymnastic concept of mountaineering applies to a range of mountaineering disciplines. A basic principle of the gymnastic concept of mountaineering is the effort to master the mountaineering moves needed to cover a certain section of an ascent. Of course, aside from these moves there common motivations of mountaineering are present as well, such as the effort to get somewhere in the terrain, to climb somewhere, to summit a particular route, etc. And yet at the same time a significant element is to enjoy pleasure and success from a perfectly executed move which enabled a climber to surmount the most difficult part of the route. This aspect brings another characteristic into the foreground which is present in other mountaineering disciplines but here much more of a focus: competitiveness, and an effort to increase the complexity of the moves executed. From this effort race climbing was born, which soon came to favour artificial mountaineering walls.
The gymnastic concept
Nonetheless, a large part of the gymnastic concept of climbing takes place in nature; that is, in a natural setting. For this reason the emphasis is placed on movement, while other aspects of mountaineering are partially suppressed so that the movements can develop further. Above all, permanent installed (fixed) protection is placed in large quantities throughout the terrain. In this way the psychological challenge of climbing is significantly reduced, fear of the dangerous consequences of falling is eliminated, and it is possible to concentrate even more on the execution of more complex movements. This increase in the complexity of movement is the domain of performance climbers. It is common for these climbers to carefully track the complexity of a climbed route, expressed as a certain level of a rating system. The higher the level of complexity, the greater the success, because they have managed to master a more advanced movement.
Even though the gymnastic approach to mountaineering is most frequently carried out on cliffs, this form of mountaineering can be found in mountains as well, mostly in lower mountains, but also in very high altitude mountains. Here long rock ascents must be executed using multiple climbing pitches, in which complexity of movement is linked with the necessity of exceptional endurance.
Important regions for gymnastic climbing in Europe above all include the South of France, where the world-renowned Buoux, Verdon, and other regions are located, while in Germany they include the Frankenjura area, for example. There are many other worthy gymnastic mountaineering regions in practically every larger European country. Multi-pitch rock routes secured for gymnastic climbing in the mountains include the Alpine foothills, whether in Austria, Germany, Switzerland or Italy.
In addition to the concept, the rating system under which mountaineering is conducted has a great influence on the manner in which mountaineering is carried out. Usually three levels are identified – recreational, performance, and peak. The recreational level involves leisure time activity; that is, merely for sport recreation. The performance level assumes goal-oriented training. The peak level requires extreme sport performance, whether in high altitude mountains, rock climbing, or international competitions on artificial climbing walls.
The absolute majority of mountaineers partake in mountaineering at the recreational level. The traditional concept of mountaineering at the recreational level is a sport activity with elements of romanticism and a desire to return to unblemished nature. Under the gymnastic concept of mountaineering at the recreational level this mostly consists of fun through movement and ski sport in well-secured rocks or artificial climbing walls.
The recreational level using the traditional concept – romantic adventure in unblemished nature.
The recreational level using the gymnastic concept – fitness in the sun and fresh air.
1. What are the main components of tactical campaigns?
2. Tell us about the tactics of sports tourism;
3. Tell about ropes and components used in tourism;
1. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013
2. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013
3. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010
4. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012
5. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011
6. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011
7. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014
№ 12 Organizing skiing tours
Aim:.Explain students how to organize skiing tours
Key words: skiing tours, travel destination
Determine the skiing ability of all members who intend to form a part of the group. You need to know the skill level of the least experienced member of your group. This person determines how hard you can push everyone and the type of terrain and length of the skiing trip that you can propose. As with a hike, the slowest and least capable person determines the group's entire pace and if there is a skier incapable of skiing certain terrain, this can become a liability if not accounted for at the outset. Determining basic expertise level will ensure that the trip is safe and enjoyable for all.
It is okay to include a challenge for members willing to undertake to push themselves that bit further. However, you all need to know and recognize that this is what is intended and still make allowances for it.
Choosing the skiing location
Choose a travel destination. Be prepared to put in decent effort and time in finding an appropriate location. The location should not only match the abilities of all group members but should be a place that provides everyone with a chance to enjoy the great outdoors, learn something new and even push themselves a little.
Find an area that is picturesque, safe and affordable. Contact local outfitting companies for information regarding avalanche risks during particular times of the year. They should also be able to provide guidance as to weather trends and regional affordability.
Preparing the group
Brush up on backcountry skiing familiarity. Those who have never gone skiing in the backcountry should consider taking a community class to ensure safety. This will enable them to learn rescue actions, understand what to do when you get lost and coping with dangers such as avalanches. If you don't have access to a class, arrange a night or a few nights for learning from the more advanced members of the group. Use YouTube videos to demonstrate dangers and rescue techniques, as well as physically practicing some of these techniques.
Backcountry skiing training and safety classes are often offered at local universities and even some outdoor recreation stores. These classes can be taken for a reasonable fee, although the purchase of some safety tools may be required.
Have a safety plan in place. Be sure to leave a note with a trusted friend or family member regarding the location of the ski trip, the estimated length of the vacation and the time the participants are expected to return home. This information can be essential for rapid outdoor rescue in the event of an emergency.
Decide how you're all getting to the location. You have the option of your own transport or catching public transportation, depending on what is available. Some things to consider include:
If you are driving, is your car roadworthy for snow and ice? Do you have snow tires and/or chains? Is the car in good condition?
Is there a need for more than one car? Would it make sense to hire a bigger vehicle and share the costs around?
If you are taking public transportation, what will you need to do about getting to any out-of-the-way locations once you arrive at the main town or location near that area?
Consider where you'll stay on arrival. Presuming you arrive at a nearby town to begin with, a motel is probably a good start. As a group, you might be able to get a group discount at a nearby motel but equally, since you are a group, you will probably need to book ahead to ensure that you all get a place.
Check out huts. When you're actually skiing backcountry, if your trip is more than the day, you'll need overnight shelter. Find out what huts are in the area you're skiing and how to book them or use them. This will also affect your route planning, as clearly you'll need to factor in the location of huts if using them.
Consider winter camping. Tents are a possibility if the conditions are right and all members of the group know how to winter camp. This can be tough on everyone and there are risks, such as avalanches and severe cold, so each member must be aware of what to do to create a safe camp.
Snow caves are an option but are very tiring to build. They are best kept for an emergency.
Planning the skiing route
Get a decent map of the area before all else. At least two members of the group, and preferably all members of the group, should know how to map read and find their way with a compass. GPS might not work where you are going.
Does the map show skiing routes at all? These are handy to make use of.
Look online for suggestions from others who have already skied the area. Learn from their experiences to guide your own. In particular, find out about potential hazards and how to avoid these.
Contact the local parks office or tourist office to find out more information.
Plan the route. Once you have the map and background information that you need, plan a route that is doable by all members of the group. Factor in everyone's skill, the time it normally takes and add a little extra time for safety.
Are there any features you want to see while on the trip, such as a photography opportunity? Include these in the route planning.
Do not plan to push on after dark; while headlamps can show some of the way, this is dangerous and it is the time for resting and regaining your energy.
Plan to pack energy food and water. Include high fat content food, such as chocolate, energy bars, jerky and nuts. Carry a small stove suitable for winter cooking to allow you to heat up meals for lunch and dinner; the camping package meals are ideal.
Water bottles should be insulated to prevent the water from freezing. You do need to drink often when skiing, even if it doesn't feel like it.
If staying in a hut, find out in advance what cooking facilities it has. This will help you to plan what food to carry.
Spread the weight of food and water evenly between group members' packs. If someone is able to carry more due to greater strength, that is fine but it is important that everyone has some form of food on them, just in case they get separated.
Wear appropriate clothing for skiing in cold conditions. If you don't already know what to wear, a reputable sports store that outfits skiers will be able to advise you. For a long trip, changes of clothing will be required but even for a day trip, a spare pair of socks and extra gloves can't hurt to carry.
Have adequate head, face and hand protection. These areas will be your Achilles heel if not properly covered while skiing. Balaclavas are a good choice for the head, as they cover both face and head and there are many modern fabrics and designs to choose from.
Many skiers choose to layer gloves and mittens for optimal warmth.
Helmet wearing is dependent on the speed and type of skiing the group will be doing. Discuss this with your group ahead of the trip.
8. Tourism Principles and Practice.5th Edition John Fletcher, Alan Fyall, David Gilbert, Stephen Wanhill Jun 2013
9. Introduction to Hospitality: Pearson New International Edition 06th Edition John Walker Aug 2013
10. Thinking through Tourism By Julie ScottBerg, 2010
11. The Business of Tourism 9th Edition Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys Jun 2012
12. Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism 4th Edition A.J. Veal Mar 2011
13. Essentials of Tourism Chris Cooper Sep 2011
14. Research Methods for Arts and Event Management A.J. Veal, Christine Burton Aug 2014
№ 13 Cycling tours
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