Results, Analysis, and Conclusion
Climbers who have gone through this planning, training, implementation process a few times will likely have an easier go of it than people training for and hoping to tackle their first large-scale objective. I encourage everyone to keep journals and notes on things like training routines, timing, gear lists, and calendars. I have found these notes incredibly useful for planning future trips. As your experience grows but memories of details fade, it can be hard to remember when exactly you started training, what activities you did to train, and what sort of gear you took along last time. By keeping good notes and documenting all aspects of your expedition or climb, you can save yourself a lot of effort when it comes time to prepare again. If you make a calendar or schedule, save it and pull it out the next time.
This practice ties very closely into the post-trip evaluation process. After your training efforts and climbing trip have come to an end, spend a little time reflecting on how things went and on how well you think you prepared, and consider what you could have or should have done differently. After every trip I try and think, even if it's informally, what I could have done without for gear, and what I wish I had along and didn't. I consider the strategy and approach I took and review and how things on the climb went compared to what I had planned for. I also consider my physical condition (or lack thereof), and then most importantly, I jot a few quick notes down in a journal so I can share with others or reference the notes myself the next season or years down the road. Another benefit of doing something like this is to take an occasional walk down memory lane by looking at notes from over the years, reliving some excellent adventures in the process.
Accommodation capacity: The measure of accommodation stock at a defined destination. May be given by various different measures: e.g. number of establishments; number of main units within an establishment (e.g. rooms, caravan stances); capacity in terms of residents (e.g. bedspaces).
Accounting period: Normally one year, the period for which accounts are drawn up
Accreditation: A procedure to establish if a tourism business meets certain standards of management and operation.
add-on: any component of a package tour that is not included in the package price
Advanced ecotourism: A level of accreditation consisting of all core criteria as well as some of the advanced certification criteria.
adventure tour: a tour designed around an adventurous activity such as rafting or hiking
Adventure tourism: A form of tourism in natural areas that incorporates an element of risk, higher levels of physical exertion, and the need for specialised skills.
affinity group: a group sharing a common interest, usually from an organization. See also pre-formed group.
after-departure charge: expenses such as telephone charges that do not appear on a guest’s account at check out.
agent: one who acts or has the power to act as the representative of another. Most frequently in travel anyone other than a principal, such as a retail travel agent, receiving agent, ticket agent, local operator or wholesaler (usage uncommon in No. America)
air sea: a cruise/travel program which includes both air/sea arrangements. Often combined with local hotel arrangements for pre/post stays
airline classes of service: variety of terms used to express a particular type of aircraft cabin service. Classes vary with types of compartments, seating comfort, and amenities, with variation between domestic and international flights, and denoted by a fare code on the ticket.
airline fare: price charged for an airline ticket. Some of the categories are as follows: advance purchase excursion (APEX): heavily discounted excursion fare available on many international routes. Reservations and payment will be required well in advance of departure, with varying penalizes for cancellation; excursion: individual fares that require a round-trip within time limits, discounted from coach fare, limited availability; group: discounts from regular fares for groups; and regular or normal: any unrestricted fare.
airline reporting conference (ARC): a consortium of airline companies, who by agreement, provide a method of approving authorized agency locations for the sale of transportation and cost-effective procedures for processing records and funds to carriers. Not all airlines are ARC companies.
All-inclusive: A form of package holiday where the majority of services offered at the destination are included in the price paid prior to departure (e.g. refreshments, excursions, amenities, gratuities, etc).
Allocentric: Of a minority of tourists: adventurous, outgoing, self-confident, independent, needing little tourist infrastructure. Enjoys high contact with locals.
Alternative tourism: In essence, tourism activities or development that are viewed as non-traditional. It is often defined in opposition to large-scale mass tourism to represent small-scale sustainable tourism developments. AT is also presented as an 'ideal type', that is, an improved model of tourism development that redresses the ills of traditional, mass tourism
American plan: type of rate that includes the price of the hotel room, breakfast, lunch and dinner. AP is the common abbreviation. See also room rates.
Antifoul: applied to ship’s hull to prevent encrusting of barnacles, seaweed, and other marine organisms.
Artefact: An object; an item of material culture.
Assets: Something of value that will provide future benefit or utility, can be used to generate revenue. Usually owned, so simply described as 'things we own'.
association executive: A full-time professional administrator who is employed by an association and is responsible for planning and promoting annual conventions and association meetings.
attraction: a place, event, building or area which tourists want to visit
attraction: a natural or man-made facility, location, or activity which offers items of specific interest to tourists.
Auditing: A process to measure and verify the practices of a business.
average room rate: the total guest room revenue for a given period divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period. Since it can be related to investment, this statistic is frequently used as a measure of economic feasibility.
back to back: term used to describe tours operating on a consistent, continuing basis, usually without time between.
Backpacker: A visitor, for the purpose of a holiday or special event, who stays in a backpackers lodge/hostel.
bed and breakfast: (B & B) overnight accommodations usually in a private home or boarding house, with a full American-style or continental breakfast included in the rate, often without private bath facilities
Benchmarking: Measuring performance against that of best in class companies, determining how the best-in-class achieve those performance levels and using this information as a basis for your own company's targets, strategies and implementation (Pryor, 1989).
Benchmarking: Process of comparing performance and activities among similar organizations either against an agreed standard or against those that are recognized as being among the best
Benchmarks: Points of reference or comparison, which may include standards, critical success factors, indicators, metrics.
Best Practice: Operational standards considered the most effective and efficient means of achieving desired outcomes.
bias: preferential display on a reservations computer of a host carrier flight schedule.
biodiversity: a variety of wildlife in an area
Biological diversity (biodiversity): The variety of life forms and genes they contain, and the ecosystems they form. Biodiversity is usually considered at four levels; genetic diversity, species diversity, community diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
block: a number of rooms, seats, or space reserved in advance, usually by wholesalers, tour operators, or receptive operators who intend to sell them as components of tour packages.
bonding: the guarantee of protection for a supplier or consumer. In the travel industry, certain bonding programs are mandatory. The ARC insists that travel agents be bonded to protect the airlines against defaults. Professional operators and agents buy bonds voluntarily to protect their clients.
booking form: a document which tour purchasers must complete which gives the operator full particulars about who is buying the tour. It states exactly what is being purchased, ( including options) and must be signed as acknowledgment that the liability clause has been read and understood.
bulk fare: fare available only to tour organizers or operators who purchase a specified block of seats from a carrier at a low, non-commissionable price and then have the responsibility of selling the seats, including a commission in their marked-up price.
Bureaucracy: An organisation typified by formal processes, standardisation, hierarchic procedures, and written communication
business plan: an action plan that entrepreneurs draw up for the purpose of starting a business; a guide to running one's business
Business Travel or Business Events: Travel for commercial rather than leisure purposes. Business travel is sometimes used as a cover-all to include what are sometimes referred to as the “MICE” markets – meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions
Business travel: Travel for a purpose and to a destination determined by a business, and where all costs are met by that business.
Business Travel: Travel of 1: 365 days duration for the purpose of attending a convention or training, conducting official/government or private business.
cafeteria: a food-service operation of a limited menu, in which customers carry their own trays to seating
Capacity management: A process that seeks to ensure that their organisations operate at optimum capacity whilst maintaining customer satisfaction levels.
Capital expenditure: The cost of long-term assets; such as computer equipment, vehicles and premises. Importantly these are bought to use over several years and not to resell.
carrier: transportation company such as an airline, motorcoach, cruise line, or railroad which carries passengers and/or cargo carrying capacity: the amount of tourism a destination can handle.
Carrying capacity: The amount of visitor activity that a site or destination can sustain.
Carrying-capacity analysis: Originally a term applied in ecology referring to the maximum number of animals of a given species that a particular habitat could support. In the context of tourism, it refers to the maximum number of tourists a destination can support.
cash flow: monies available to meet the company’s daily operating expenses, as opposed to equity, accounts receivable, or other credits not immediately accessible
Certified Tour Professional: CTP: a designation conferred upon tour professionals who have completed a prescribed course of academic study, professional service, tour employment and evaluation requirements. It is administered by the National Tour Association.
Certified Travel Counselor: CTC: a designation attesting to professional competence as a travel agent. It is conferred upon travel professional with five or more years of industry experience who complete a two year, graduate-level travel management program administered by the Institute of Certified Travel Agents.
Chain of distribution: The means by which products (package holidays in this instance) are distributed from producers (principals) to consumers (tourists), often via wholesalers and retailers (tour operators and travel agents).
charter operations: (1) term referring the transportation of pre-formed groups which have the exclusive use of the vehicle. (2) An operator authorized to arrange transportation, however, is not limited to dealing with pre-formed groups, but can itself form the tour group.
Charter: A legal contract between an owner and an organisation for the hire of a means of transport for a particular purpose. An individual traveller will use an intermediary to arrange to be carried on the transport. Often applied to a flight which is the result of a charter.
charter: to hire the exclusive use of any aircraft, motorcoach, or other vehicle
circle trip: a journey with stopovers that returns to the point of departure
city guide: a person who has a speciality of guiding in the city only
closeout: finalization of a tour, cruise, or similar group travel project after which time no further clients are accepted. Any unsold air or hotel space is released, and final payments are sent to all suppliers.
Coach Tour: A guided bus tour for a group of holiday makers that follows a scheduled itinerary. Visitors purchase all arrangements from the Inbound Tour Operator prior to arrival in NZ.
Code of conduct: Guidelines advising a tourism stakeholder, including tourists, on how to behave in an environmentally responsible manner.
Code of Ethics / Conduct / Practice: Recommended practices based on a system of self regulation intended to promote environmentally and/or socio-culturally sustainable behaviour.
commercial rate: a special rate agreed upon by a company and a hotel. Usually the hotel agrees to supply rooms of a specified quality or better at a flat rate to corporate clients.
commercial recreation system: recreational products, services, and facilities created and operated by privately owned businesses or corporations as opposed to public facilities
commission: the percentage of a selling price paid to a retailer by a supplier. In the travel industry, travel agents receive commissions for selling tour packages or other services.
common carrier: a privately owned carrier which offers transportation for a fee
complimentary room: a guest room for which no charge is made. Complimentary rooms with a tour group are usually occupied by the tour manager or driver.
Computer reservation systems (CRS): Computerised Reservation Systems used for inventory management by airlines, hotels and other facilities. CRSs can allow direct access through terminals for intermediaries to check availability, make reservations and print tickets.
concessionaire : a firm which, under contract rights, operates for another party (in many cases, a government agency) food and beverage services, lodging facilities, and other services on-site at an attraction
concierge: a hotel employee who handles restaurant and tour reservations, travel arrangements, and other details for hotel guests
conditions: the section or clause of a transportation/tour contract which specifies what is not included and which may spell out the circumstances under which the contract many be invalidated
conductor, and (in Europe) courier: Tour manager/guide - both terms have roughly the same meaning and are used interchangeably. A person with this title is usually at a professional, well trained level.
confidential tariff: a schedule of wholesale rates distributed in confidence to travel wholesalers and agents. Better known as a net rate.
configuration: the interior arrangement of a vehicle, particularly an airplane. The same airplane, for example, may be configured for 190 coach-class passengers, or it may hold 12 first-class passengers and 170 coach passengers, Configuration is also used in conjunction with how the plane is arranged such as three seats on each side or in larger planes two seats on each side with four middle seats.
confirmed reservation: an oral or written agreement by a supplier that he has received and will honor a reservation. Oral confirmations have no legal weight. Even written or telegraphed confirmations have specified or implied limitations. e.g.: a hotel not honoring a reservation after 6 pm., unless late arrival has been guaranteed in some manner.
Conservation: Can be broadly interpreted as action taken to protect and preserve the natural world from harmful features of tourism, including pollution and overexploitation of resources.
Conservation: The protection and maintenance of nature while allowing for its ecologically sustainable use.
consolidation: cancellation by a charter tour operator of one or more tours/flights associated with a specific charter departure or departure period, with the transfer of passengers to another charter tour/flight to depart on or near the same day.
consolidator: a person or company which forms groups to travel on air charters or at group rates on scheduled flights to increase sales, earn override commissions or reduce the possibility of tour cancellations.
consortium: a loosely knit group of independently owned and managed companies such as travel agencies, tour operators, hotels, or other suppliers, with a joint marketing distribution process
continental breakfast: at a minimum, a beverage (coffee, tea or milk) and rolls or toast. Fruit juice is often added.
continental plan: a hotel rate which includes a continental breakfast with the overnight room stay.
contract: a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties
contractor: an operator who provides services to wholesalers, tour operators and travel agents
convention and visitors bureau (CVB): a non-profit local organization supported by transient room taxes, government budget allocations, private memberships, or a combination of any of these funding mechanisms. A CVB typically encourages groups to hold meetings, conventions, and trade shows in its area.
Convention or Conference Bureau: Usually a publicly funded organisation charged with the promotion of a town or region for conferences, meetings and exhibitions.
co-op tour: a tour which is sold through a number of wholesalers, cooperatives, or other outlets in order to increase sales and reduce the possibility of tour cancellations.
Cost-benefit analysis: Full analysis of public and private costs and benefits of project.
costing: the process of itemizing and calculating all costs the tour operator will pay on a given tour. Costing is usually the function of the operations manager.
Cost-plus pricing: A method of pricing where an amount, to cover profit, is added to costs to establish the selling price, this is an internally orientated pricing method.
coupon, tour: a voucher that can be exchanged for a travel product
courier: a European definition for tour manager/guide
cover charge: a fee, usually a flat amount per person, charged to patrons to cover the cost of music and entertainment
Critical incident point (CIP): A critical incident point or 'moment of truth' is any event which occurs when the customer has (or even perceives that he has) contact with a service organisation.
Cultural Authenticity: Ensuring the appropriate dreaming stories, spiritual beliefs, history, ceremony and art is attributed to the relevant area.
Cultural tourism: Travel for the purpose of learning about cultures or aspects of cultures.
culture: people's customs, clothing, food, houses, language, dancing, music, drama, literature and religion
Culture: A set of shared norms and values which establish a sense of identity for those who share them. Typically applied at the level of nation and/or race.
Culture: The sum total of ways of living by a group of human beings that is transmitted from one generation to another.
Customer: "An organization or a person that receives a product" (ISO, 2000a: 10).
customized tour: a tour designed to fit the specific needs of a particular target market
customs: the common term for a government agency charged with collecting duty on specified items imported into that country. The agency also restricts the entry of persons and forbidden items without legal travel documents
cut-off date: designated day when the buyer must release or add commitments to their event or tour
day rate: a reduced rate granted for the use of a guest room during the daytime, not overnight occupancy. Often used when someone needs a display room, office, or is in-transit due to odd airline schedules.
Day visitors: Visitors who arrive and leave the same day, irrespective of why they are travelling
Decision-making unit (DMU): The combination of inputs to a purchasing decision
Degradation: Any decline in the quality of natural or cultural resources, or the viability of ecosystems, that is caused directly or indirectly by humans.
deluxe tour: in travel usage, presumably of the highest standard
Demographic Profile: Characteristics used in research such as age, gender, occupation, income, marital status, place of residence, etc.
departure tax: fee collected from the traveler by the host country at the time of departure
Dependency theory: This theory maintains that developing countries are kept in a position of dependency and underdevelopment due to existing economic and institutional power structures sustained by leading Western nations. Dependency theorists argue that the policies and activities of multinational corporations, national bilateral and multinational aid agencies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) tend to widen the gap between rich and poor countries and perpetuate the dependency of developing nations.
deposit policy: a specified amount or a percentage of the total bill due on a specified date prior to arrival
deposit: an advance payment required to obtain confirmed space
deregulation: the act of removing regulations from the travel industry. The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, which amended the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, provided for the end of the Civil Aeronautics Board s regulating authority over domestic airlines on January 1, 1985, for removing travel agent exclusivity, thus paving the way for carriers to appoint and pay commissions to non-travel agents, and for the removal of antitrust immunity for travel agents. The motorcoach industry was deregulated in 1982.
Designation: The act of conferring a legal status on a building which requires compliance with specific legislation on conservation and preservation.
destination: the end point of a journey
Destination Management Company (DMC): A company working in a specific destination to handle all bookings and arrangements for tours or conferences, including hotel accommodation, transfers, sightseeing, meetings and special events. Tour operators or conference planners are likely to use the services of a DMC because of their specialist local knowledge.
destination management company: (DMC) a company that provides on-the-scene meetings assistance for corporations and associations
destination marketing organization: (DMO) a category of membership of the National Tour Association which includes state or provincial tourism offices, convention and visitors bureaus, and chambers of commerce which promote a city, region, or state as a travel destination
destination: the place to which a traveler is going. In the travel industry, any city, area, or country which can be marketed as a single entity for tourists.
dine-around plan: a plan that permits tourists to dine at a variety of restaurants using vouchers and coupons on a tour
direct spending: money that goes directly from a tourist into the economy of the destination
director, tour: a person, usually employed or subcontracted by the tour operator, who accompanies a tour from departure to return, acting as a guide and troubleshooter and performing all functions to make the tour operate. Also see tour manager or escort.
Discretionary income: Money received from employment or other sources which can be freely spent on leisure pursuits (such as travel and tourism) after general living costs, taxation etc. are taken into consideration.
Discrimination: Unequal treatment of persons on grounds which are not justifiable in law, e.g. in the UK, discrimination on the grounds of sex or race.
Distribution: The process employed to provide customers access to the product. For travel products distribution focuses largely on the ways in which the customer can reserve or purchase the product.
Disturbance: Accelerated change caused by human activity or extreme natural events.
Diversification: The process of developing new products for new markets, in order to achieve business growth.
diversity: variety; multiplicity; range; assortment
domestic escorted tour: a packaged, pre-planned itinerary, including the services of a tour manager (escort) within a traveler s own country
domestic independent tour: DIT: a custom-made tour of a part of the USA planned exclusively for a client by a travel agent
Domestic supply of tourism commodities: Domestic supply of tourism commodities is defined as the total production in Canada of the tourism commodities which are mainly produced by tourism industries. Not all of domestic supply is purchased by visitors, so that supply exceeds tourism demand for the national tourism indicators (NTI). For example, visitors purchase only a small proportion of food and beverage services, with most going to local consumption. Also, supply does not include imports. For example the sale of a ticket on a non-Canadian airline is excluded from supply.
Domestic tourism: Travel within the country of residence.
Dominant scenic alteration: An alteration in the scenic landscape that is visually obtrusive.
double-occupancy rate: the price per person for a room to be shared with another person; abbreviated ppdo and most often quoted in the industry
double-room rate: the full price of a room for two people (twice the double-occupancy rate)
downgrade: to move to a lesser level of accommodations or a lower class of service
Due diligence: Taking what is considered in law to be reasonable care.
Dwell time: Length of time a visitor spends at an attraction or destination. Dwell time is often taken into consideration when setting admission fees as a way of ensuring perceived value for money
Earth Check™ indicators: Proprietary system belonging to Green Globe 21, which uses carefully selected indicators to measure and benchmark key environmental and social impacts, as well as operational efficiency.
Ecologically sustainable: Using, conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological development is maintained, and the total quality of life can be sustained now and in the future.
eCommerce: Internet facilitated commerce, using electronic means for promoting, selling, distributing, and servicing products.
economy fares or services: in U.S. domestic airline operations, passenger carriage at a level below coach service; in international operations, carriage at a level below first class
ecosystem: an area where living and non-living things interact
Ecosystem: A dynamic system of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities, and the associated non-living physical and chemical factors.
ecotour: a tour designed to focus on preserving the environment of environmentally sensitive areas
eco-tourism: a combination of tourism and the environment (e.g. planning before development; sustainability of resources; economic viability of a tourism product; no negative impact on either the environment or local communities; responsibility for the environment from developers, the tourism industry and tourists; environmentally-friendly practices by all parties concerned and economic benefits flowing to local communities)
Ecotourism: Defined by The International Ecotourism Society as ‘responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people’.
Ecotourism: Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that foster environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.
educational tour: tour designed around an educational activity, such as studying art
endangered species: in severe danger of becoming extinct in the near future unless immediate steps are taken to protect the species
Energy conservation: Positive initiatives to reduce the consumption of energy to the minimum level required.
environment: the diverse community activities and cultures of a country's inhabitants, as well as its scarce and sensitive natural resources
Environmental auditing: Inspection of a tourism organisation to assess the environmental impact of its activities.
Environmental education: Formal and informal learning processes that are designed to raise awareness and teach new values, knowledge and skills, in order to encourage more sustainable behaviour.
Environmental impact assessment: A study undertaken to assess the effect of an action upon a specific environment or the social or cultural integrity of a community.
Environmental impact statement: The report resulting from an environmental impact assessment.
Plan of training sessions
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