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Стратегии чтения и понимания текста




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Выделяют 4 вида чтения текста в зависимости от поставленных целей:

  1. Просмотровое (skimming) - определение темы данного текста после беглого просмотра, без уточнения деталей.
  2. Поисковое (scanning)-поиск информации по поставленным к тексту вопросам.
  3. Аналитическое (comprehensive)-понимание основного содержания текста, включая детали.
  4. Критическое (critical)-высказывание своих суждений по содержанию прочитанного текста.

Опытный чтец владеет разными стратегиями чтения, гибко применяя их в зависимости от того, какого рода информацию ему надо извлечь из текста.

Если перед вами стоит задача:

o отбора текстов по определенной тематике, то в этом случае вы применяете такой приём «быстрого чтения» как поиск ключевых слов по заданной тематике;

o поиска ответа на вопросы, касающиеся специфической информации, такой как имена, даты, цифры, термины и др., то используйте приемы поискового чтения:

прочитайте вопрос, фокусируя внимание на содержащиеся в нем слова, которые и

будут сигналами для нахождения ответа;

o полного понимания текста, то применяются приёмы аналитического чтения.

Текст считается понятым, если вы правильно определили его основное содержание и основную идею: то есть ответили на вопросы о чем этот текст и что автор хотел сказать своим сочинением.Используйтеследующие приемы аналитического чтения:

  1. Внимательно прочитайте заголовок текста. Как правило, в нем (если это не художественное произведение) заявляется тема высказывания, которая конкретизирует план содержания текста.
  2. Бегло просмотрите начало и конец текста для определения модели построения текста: основная идея может содержаться в его начале и тогда весь текст строится по принципу от общего к частному или в конце - от частного к общему.
  3. В каждом абзаце текста найдите ключевое предложение (topic sentence), которое развивает основную идею текста. Как правило, оно находится в началеабзаца и представляет собой утверждение обобщенного характера. Все остальные предложения либо подтверждают, либо опровергают его.
  4. Если у вас появились трудности при понимании абзаца из-за незнания новых слов, просто продолжайте читать дальше. Очень часто контекст подскажет вам значение незнакомых слов.
  5. Иногда главная идея текста заключена в предложении, которое вы не поняли. Если это предложение очень длинное, определите в нем главное и придаточные предложения.

Как правило, основная идея заключена в главном предложении.

Если и в главном предложении есть много незнакомых для вас слов, то, определив подлежащее, сказуемоеи дополнение, можно понять суть этого предложения.

Придаточные предложения дадут дополнительную информацию и расширят понимание основной идеи текста.

Если в придаточных предложениях много новых слов, попытайтесь вычеркнуть слова, передающие второстепенную информацию и определить значимую часть этих придаточных предложений.

Часто придаточные предложения отделены от главного запятой или вводятся словами which, who, that и несут дополнительную информацию. Попытайтесь, вычеркнув сопутствующие идеи, определить основную мысль.

Обратите внимание на важные грамматические и пунктуационные знаки, которые могут изменить значение предложения.

Точка с запятой в английском предложении показывает, что после неё идёт объяснение предыдущей части предложения.

Запятаяв английском предложении может обозначать синонимический ряд объясняемого слова.

 

СЛОВА-СИГНАЛЫ, облегчающие понимание сути предложения.

  • FROM…TO - указывают на начало и конец периода
  • NOT ONLY …BUT ALSO, AS WELL AS, BOTH - указывают, что обе части предложения одинаково важны
  • IN ORDER TO - как и IF, указывают, что какое-то событие должно произойти перед другим событием
  • INSTEAD OF - указывает на то, что произошло нечто, противоположное ожидаемому
  • AS A RESULT, BECAUSE OF – указывает на причину происходящего действия. В таком предложении вы можете увидеть причину и следствие.
  • UNLIKE, ON THE ONE HAND… ON THE OTHER HAND, IN CONTRAST - указывает на отличие одного от другого.
  • LIKE (не путать с глаголом!) - указывает на сходство предметов.

 

СЛУЖЕБНЫЕ СЛОВА, помогут вам быстрее понять суть предложения.

1-относительно :

· AS FOR

· AS REGARDS, REGARGING

· AS TO

· CONCERNING

· IN CONNECTION WITH

· WITH RESPECT OF

Если

· AT ANY RATE

· IF

Однако

· AT THE SAME TIME

· HOWEVER

· NEVERTHELESS

· STILL

Следовательно

· AS A RESULT

· СONSEQUENTLY

· IN CONSEQUENCE

Ввиду того, что

· IN VIEW OF

· CONCERNING THAT

Главным образом

· CHIEFLY

· MAINLY

· FINALLY

В заключении

· IN CONCLUSION

Знание служебных слов, вводящих герундиальные обороты, поможет вам при понимании смысла предложения

  • by- тем, что
  • of- о том, что
  • to-тому, что
  • in- в том, что, к тому, что
  • in addition to - кроме того, что
  • in spite of - несмотря на то, что
  • besides- кроме того, что
  • due to- в следствии того, что, благодаря тому, что
  • owing to -благодаря тому, что

 

Используя полученную информацию по работе с текстом, выполните следующие задания.

Задание 1**

Ответьте на вопросы.

  1. Прочитайте заголовок текста и скажите, о чем в нем пойдет речь.
  2. Кто может быть автором этого текста?
  3. Просмотрите текст и скажите, по какой модели он построен: от общего к частному или от частного к общему?
  4. Найдите ключевые предложения в каждом абзаце текста.
  5. Подчерните слова-сигналы и определите их значение.
  6. Выделите служебные слова и определите, какую смысловую нагрузку они несут в тексте.

 

Задание 2

Быстро просмотрев текст, найдите ответы на данные вопросы

  1. Who is the author of this essay?
  2. What project did the author take part in?
  3. What European university did the author study at?
  4. What does Moot Court Competition bring to students?
  5. In what form are examinations in Swedish universities administered?

Swedish and Russian systems of higher education.

Personal experience.

I. Significance of cooperation between East and West with regard to higher education is generally recognized. Close collaboration promotes exchanges of ideas, cross-cultural learning, expands educational opportunities, and enriches experience of all participants.

II. Russia in large extent still remains beyond an integrated European system of higher education. That is why the Tempus “Students’ Mobility” project has been a highlight in true cooperation between Russia and the European Union. The Project has been working well giving an opportunity for Russian students to be acquainted with European standards of higher education and bringing a new exciting experience in studying process. Therefore some comments on participants’ experience gained from the program could promote cooperation between universities and help to anticipate possible obstacles in future integration between Russia and the EU.

III. This essay presents an individual view of a student who spent one semester in Oerebro University, Sweden within the Tempus framework. It focuses on an educational system and studies in Russia and Sweden. The author would like to underline the main differences in both systems and to point out probable reef stones in further undertakings.

IVThe very first notion has to be made with regard to the differences in educational process as such. Russian higher education standard is based on a confirmed curriculum with a list of compulsory courses often without any elective courses. Students study between 10 and 15 required courses at a time. Attendance of all these courses is mandatory in Russian universities. Educational process encompasses lectures and seminars. Distribution of workload is made towards class work, 20 classes (40 hours) per week.

V Swedish educational system is distinguished by a certain freedom for students to choose some of the courses they want to enroll. A student studies one subject at a time although it is possible to take two part-time courses concurrently. Attendance is not always mandatory but rather expected. The principle pillar of Swedish higher education which opposes it with the Russian one is the concept of individual studies. A great deal of time in Sweden is devoted to student’s studies outside the classroom. There are usually 6-7 classes per week. It implies that lectures are presented more likely as an introduction to different areas giving general notions and key-aspects whereas more profound examination is left to individual studies and depends on a student’s commitment to studying.

On the one hand an advantage of the Swedish system is that it gives students an opportunity to concentrate attention on one subject, thus more likely to get thorough knowledge in the field of study. On the other hand it is rather difficult for a student to argue purely legal issues without having obtained theoretical concepts during lectures. A prevailing emphasis on the individual studies does not always work for a student’s benefit. I am of the opinion that this system fails to guarantee a profound well-structured theoretical knowledge and a correct understanding of the subject by every student. It obviously depends on a certain individual student, his or her abilities and commitment to studying. That is why the true balance in the distribution of class and out of class workload is necessary and extremely important.

Group-work as well as seminars in the format of debates has been a true delight during my studying in Sweden. It trains students to work in group and listen to different opinions, improves intellectual flexibility and self-confidence. I do hope that this way of instruction will become more popular in Russia.

Besides, I would like to suggest a possibility of Moot Court instruction as a part of some courses both in Oerebro University and Udmurt State University, i.e. for courses on Public International Law, Human Rights. Moot Court Competition brings a new motivation and excitement into the learning process. It helps to enrich legal knowledge of students, prepares and trains for proper and successful acting in court, improves the use of rhetoric, gestures, speaking in public without notes and what not. It has already proved its helpfulness and apparently is becoming a more and more popular teaching method all over the world.

VI. One of the aspects worth mentioning is the existence of different levels of courses.

In Sweden in contrast with Russia all courses are divided into different levels, for instance basic, intermediate, advanced and higher advanced. It gives an opportunity for students whose major is other than law to enroll in the course if they meet necessary prerequisites. In Russia with regard to jurisprudence only students of the law department are allowed to take courses in the field of law. All the courses are distributed according to the year of studying. It means that there are neither levels of the courses nor any prerequisites for the enrollment. Students just follow their curriculum. From my point of view under these circumstances students who lack legal background have difficulties in mastering legal concepts and arguing on the legal basis rather than on political one.

VII. The system of assessment is very different in both countries.

Russia is famous for its tradition of oral examinations. According to the Russian system students are provided with a list of questions, usually from 80 to 150, for preparation before an exam. Any of these questions can be asked during the exam.

Exams in Sweden are usually in written form, although it can also be in the form of presentation of a paper or an essay. Students are not given any questions for preparation before the exams.

Amazing point for Russians is that students are allowed to use course literature during some exams in Sweden. I will comment. Examination assignment often presents a hypothetical case or a controversial question which is to be solved by a student. Applying her or his analytical skills a student is to recognize and define a possible answer, to find arguments supporting his or her position, and to draw necessary conclusions. Even if a student is allowed to use any course literature, there is no certain answer in a book though. In order to pass an exam administered in this way it is not enough to reproduce the information learnt by heart, a student has to acquire analytical abilities to cope with the assignment.

The administration of exams in oral form has been greatly criticized as being not impartial. I believe that written form of examinations can indeed guarantee an objective assessment. Moreover it shows how a student is able to apply obtained theoretical knowledge and true understanding of the subject. My hope is that European system of assessment will become a pattern for the Russian standard of higher education.

VIII. As a virtue of the Russian higher education system with comparison to the Swedish one I would like to point out a tradition to organize conferences for students, postgraduates and young scholars. Participation in such conferences allows students interested in research to make reports on various topics and enriches their knowledge on different issues. I believe that it could work well for students’ benefit in Sweden as well.

IX. Overall the systems of higher education in Sweden and Russia are different but the main purpose of both is to provide students with profound knowledge. That is why it is extremely important to consider a variety of teaching methods used in both countries and adopt those which appeared to be successful. As for a long term perspectives my hope is that distant courses carried out between partner universities could develop a new level of cooperation and be useful for all participants.

With regard to the Tempus project itself I would like to advise the universities to provide law students whose native language is other than English with a course of Legal English. It helps the students to focus on English for legal communication and develops both language and communicative skills. In my view a Legal English course is indeed necessary for successful completion of any legal courses.

X. Finally, I would like to thank the partner universities for a wonderful opportunity to participate in the program. It has helped me to integrate easily in a professional community and be highly appreciated by American and English law professors. I express a great hope for future long term cooperation.

by Polina Permyakova.

 

Задание 3

Проанализируйте данные предложения и выделите в них главную и второстепенную информацию.

 

a) The principle pillar of Swedish higher education which opposes it with the Russian one is the concept of individual studies.

 

b) On the other hand it is rather difficult for a student to argue purely legal issues without having obtained theoretical concepts during lectures.

 

c) As for a long term perspectives my hope is that distant courses carried out between partner universities could develop a new level of cooperation and be useful for all participants.

d) I am of the opinion that this system fails to guarantee a profound well-structured theoretical knowledge and a correct understanding of the subject by every student.

e) Therefore some comments on participants’ experience gained from the program could promote cooperation between universities and help to anticipate possible obstacles in future integration between Russia and the EU.

f) To my mind an advantage of the Swedish system is that it gives students an opportunity to concentrate attention on one subject, thus more likely to get thorough knowledge in the field of study.

 

Задание 4

Прочитайте текст и проверьте ваше понимание текста, выбрав правильное окончание предложения.

1. Significance of cooperation between East and West with regard to higher education is…

a) generally recognized

b) partially recognized

c) nothing is said in the text

 

2. What promotes exchanges of ideas, cross-cultural learning, expands educational opportunities, and enriches experience of all participants?

a) cooperation between partner universities

b) individual experience

с) nothing is said in the text

 

3. Overall the systems of higher education in Sweden and Russia are …

a) absolutely different

b) quite different

c) alike

 

4. A tradition to organize conferences for students, postgraduates and young scholars is a virtue of…..

a) Swedish universities

b) Russian universities

c) Swedish and Russian

 

5. Amazing point for Russians is …

a) students are allowed to use course literature during some exams

b) students are allowed to use their notes

c) students are allowed to use nothing

 

6. The existence of different levels of courses provides opportunity for taking them by students…

a) majoring in the same field of study

b) majoring in different fields of study

c) nothing is said in the text

 

7. The exams are administered in all European universities in ….

a) written form

b) orally

c) nothing is said in the text

 

8. A new level of cooperation between partner universities could be developed …..

a) through distant courses

b) through academic mobility

c) nothing is said in the text

 

9. The system of assessment in Swedish universities is….

a) more unbiased than in Russia

b) less unbiased…..

c) nothing is said in the text .

 

10. An advantage of the Swedish system is that…

a) it gives students an opportunity to concentrate attention on one subject

b) it gives a thorough theoretical basis in the field of study

c) nothing is said in the text

 

11. A group work at the seminars was…..

a) highly evaluated by the author

b) criticized…..

c) nothing is said in the text

 

Задание 5***

Познакомьтесь с личным опытом студентки Удмуртского госуниверситета Ирины Славиной, которая продолжила обучение в Чикагской школе права.

Прочитайте это эссе и найдите аргументы, подтверждающие слова автора «The systems of higher legal education in the US and Russia could not be more different ».

March 23, 2010

STUDYING ABROAD

From Personal Experience

By Irina Slavina

 

The systems of higher legal education in the US and Russia could not be more different.

 

Getting In:

In order to get into a US law school, an applicant must first obtain a bachelor’s degree from a university or college (takes about 4 years on average to complete). Then, the applicant has to take a Law School Admission Test (“LSAT”). It is a four-hour written exam that combines testing on reading comprehension, logic, and reasoning – the skills believed to be necessary for a successful lawyer. The LSAT score will determine in which law school you could possibly be accepted. For example, the Ivy League schools like Harvard, Yale, and Princeton will look at your application only if you scored at the 95-100 percentiles on the LSAT, i.e., if there were 100 questions, you could only get 5 wrong. Less prestigious schools require at least 70 percentile, and the third-tiered schools will accept you if you got at least half of the questions correctly.

Once an applicant has the LSAT score, he or she will start assembling other application materials. They usually include a personal statement and a few additional essays, recommendation letters, and transcripts from college. The applicants can send the materials to as many law schools as they wish. They will be notified of the admission commission decision via email or by a letter.

First Year in Law School

Once accepted, the student begins his or her law school career by taking a set of predetermined mandatory core classes, that include such courses as constitutional law, civil law and procedure, criminal law and procedure, contracts, and the whole year of legal writing where the students are taught how to properly write complaints, briefs, motions, contracts, legal correspondence and other legal documents. The students are also encouraged to participate in various student organizations and volunteer for a non-profit or a governmental organization.

Lectures: the first year courses are taught only as lectures. Each class meets 2, 3 or 4 times a week for about 2 hours. The students are expected to read, analyze and understand about between 20 and 50 pages of new material which will be discussed during the class. A professor teaches the class in a form of a discussion called the Socratic Method. The professor calls on someone with a question from the assigned material and the student is expected to be able to intelligently discuss the issue. Students could also ask specific questions but only if they have read the material and did not understand a certain part. Often, a professor would pose a question from the student to the entire class to see if anyone else can answer it.

Exams: All exams are written. Normally, a professor gives two or three fact patterns and the students are expected to write essays in response in an “IRAC” format – Issue, Rule, Application, and Conclusion. It means that the students must be able to spot the issues raised by the hypothetical fact patterns, state the applicable rules of law, apply them to the given facts, and then state a conclusion. The issue spotting is the most important part that earns most of the points.

Sometimes professors also test by creating a multiple choice exam where the possible answer choices are so confusing or so similar that you keep wondering which to pick. The multiple choice tests are equally as difficult as the essay-type exams.

Grading: All exams are graded unanimously. Professors than submit a preliminary grade that corresponds to a particular number assigned to the student by the registrar’s office. This office then matches the numbers to the students’ names. After the preliminary grades are assigned, the professors could change them (but don’t have to) by half a point up or down, for instance, from A- down to B+ or from C+ up to B-. The factors like poor attendance, or lack of participation, constant tardiness, or failure to complete an assignment could cause a drop in the grade. To the contrary, active participation during lectures and other accomplishments during the course could bring the grade up half a point. Other than that, the course grade normally depends entirely on the final exam result.

Задание 6***

Прочитайте предложения, выделите главную и второстепенную информацию и поставьте данные предложения в логической последовательности.

  1. I have been selected by my home university to take part in the Erasmus exchange programme with the University of Durham.
  2. What is the Erasmus programme? Have you ever heard about it?
  3. The European Community promotes inter-University cooperation.
  4. It is a means of improving the quality of education for the benefit of students and higher education institutions.
  5. Student mobility is a predominant element of inter- University co-operation.
  6. The Erasmus programme can be a valuable experience.
  7. It is the best way to learn about other countries, ideas, languages and cultures.It is also an important element in academic and professional development.
  8. Now I’d like to tell you a few words about my life and studying abroad.
  9. The University of Durham is a busy research and busy community located in the historic cathedral city of Durham in the North-East of England.
  10. This area is famed for (известна) its attractive country side, coastline and cultural heritage (культурное наследие).
  11. As well as its magnificent Cathedral and Castle both World Heritage Sites, the city has other buildings of distinction and fine riverbanks which can be seen on foot in a few hours.
  12. The University is a centre of learning as well as teaching.
  13. The academic year is divided into three terms (from October to December, from January to March, from April to June).

15. There are only three teaching weeks in term three and then three weeks of examinations.

16. Courses to be studied should be chosen in advance.

Задание 7*

“When in Rome, do as Romans do” – говорится в английской пословице. Для того чтобы быстрее адаптироваться в другой стране, познакомьтесь с обычаями и традициями ряда стран. Прочитайте текст.

HOW NOT TO BEHAVE BADLY ABROAD

Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test.


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