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What is logical in English?

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A paragraph is a group of sentences that logically develops one subject. However, each language has a different logical pattern. In other words, Arabic has a different logical pattern from that of Spanish. English has a different logical pattern from those of Arabic and Spanish. For example, study the logical patterns shown in Figure 1.

It is not logical for a Chinese (Mandarin) writer to develop a subject directly. Instead, a Chinese writer begins on the outside of the subject, develops the subject indirectly, and ends with the exact subject. Thus, in Mandarin Chinese, logical development is indirect development.

In contrast, it is logical for a writer of English to develop a subject directly. A writer of English usually begins with the exact subject, develops the subject directly with examples and facts, and ends with a summarizing sentence. Therefore, in English, logical development is direct development.

English Semitic Oriental Romance Russian




Figure 1. Logical development patterns of different cultures


2. Прочитайте и определите, носители, какого языка являются авторами этих текстов.



Text I.


The beautiful mountain country of Switzerland was mainly settled by the Germans, French, and Italians. When they came to Switzerland, these settlers brought with them many important beliefs and customs. One common belief was a strong religious feeling. In fact, the Swiss still follow their religious traditions and customs very closely. Also the geography of Switzerland has played an important role in making the Swiss personality. Most of the people who came to Switzerland were strong people who often lived by themselves in the mountains. They had to be independent, yet neighborly, in times of trouble. As a result, Swiss people today are friendly but formal. Moreover, Switzerland is the country of watches and exactness. Therefore, it is important to be on time for everything. To summarize, tourists must realize that (I) drugstores, supermarkets, and banks are closed on Sundays; (2) a male acquaintance should be greeted with "Herr" or "Monsieur" and never with the first name; and (3) it is necessary to be on time for parties, business meetings, churches, and trains!


Text II.


Three important Swiss customs for foreign visitors to know are related to religion, greeting, and punctuality. The Swiss people are very religious, and Sunday is their holy day. On Sunday, people rarely work in the garden, in the house, or even on the car. In fact, many Swiss people have several cars such as BMW's from Germany, Renaults from France, and Fiats from Italy. Foreign tourists should know that most drugstores, supermarkets, and banks are closed on Sunday. As most bankers know, Zurich, Switzerland, is the banking capital of the world. The Swiss people are also very formal. For example, they seldom call people by their first names. The German "Herr" and the French "Monsieur" are much more frequently used in Switzerland than the English "Mister" is used in the United States. A foreign visitor should say either "Herr" or "Monsieur" when greeting a male acquaintance, and should use the person's first name only if he is a close friend. Indeed, recent surveys show that only 27 percent of all Swiss men have close male friends. In addition, Switzerland is the land of watches and exactness. It is important to be on time to everywhere: parties, business meetings, churches, and railway stations. Swiss hosts, factory bosses, and ministers love punctuality. Tourists should remember that Swiss train conductors never wait for late persons. In regard to Swiss trains, they are the best in the world because of the country's modern track system and the system's well-serviced cars. In summary, Swiss customs are quite easy to follow and very important to remember.

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