Aim of students' independent work
motivation intellectual initiative
the development of creative thinking in all kinds of cognitive activity.
Tasks students' independent work
Deepening and strengthening the educational material with the homework, coursework and diploma projects and works, preparation for practical and laboratory classes, workshops and seminars, exams, mid-term and final control.
Acquisition of skills to work with scientific and technical literature, computer technology, the experiment, an independent search of information, development of research and creativity.
Education diligence, constant readiness to search for and development of information, ie continuity and systematic training, patient perseverance and determination, ability to plan and organize working time.
In this regard, the organization of independent work has three main components:
Homework and extracurricular work as the main role for the student (this can be a preparation for the lecture, practical and laboratory classes, writing essays and reports, preparing presentations, problem solving, exercises).
• Active work in the classroom, with the main role to play, and teachers and students. This can be a synthesis of home preparation for classes and most of the work during the lesson - training, debates, role play, presentation, logic puzzles, cases, etc.
• Target setting class, without which it is impossible to conduct effective lessons, developed a teacher, made out in the prescribed form and always brought to the attention of students.
Note that if the process of self-study any issue to split into two parts, the first is always the job, reproductive level of organization of independent work must meet the level of Learning as knowledge, comprehension, application. And on the next stage - holding CDS on the productivity level, job category must meet the levels of assimilation, as analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
Independent work involves, first of all, work with information materials, which, in accordance with the level of self-activity of the student and the teaching method can be divided into: reproducing, reconstructive and variability, partial search and heuristic, creative.
Forms and methods of IWS:
The multiple choice question (MCQ) is still the most common type of written test item used for assessment in many courses. Critics of MCQs claim they can only test for the lower 'knowledge' level of learning; however, a well constructed MCQ can measure higher levels of learning such as application and analysis.
A MCQ usually includes a phrase or stem followed by three to five alternatives to choose from. One of the options is the correct answer, and the others are known as distracters.
Image of an multiple choice question example showing the stem (the question), the distracters (the potential answers, but not the real one) and the correct answer.
Figure 9: Multiple Choice Question example
Care must be taken in writing the options to ensure there is no ambiguity, and that the options are not overly long and complicated. Trying to decide among options which require a significant amount of reading can shift what is measured by an item from content knowledge to reading speed (Case & Swanson, 2002).
In a more complex MCQ, there may be more than one correct answer that students are asked to select.
A simpler version of the MCQ is the True/False question where a student is required to mark a statement as either true or false.
Short answer questions require the student to respond with a brief written answer, usually in the form of a phrase, sentence or short paragraph; and are often used in examinations. Examples include:
List three types of assessment tasks.
A water molecule is compromised of the elements hydrogen and ________________.
Essays can be thought of as an extended written response. They require students to collate and organise and integrate information on a particular topic. Essays can be relatively brief (300-500 words) or be a major assignment upward of 3000 words.
More complex essays can require students to develop and/or evaluate an argument and provide evidence to support their ideas and arguments.
There are many different types of reports used across the different disciplines including scientific laboratory reports, business analysis reports, feasibility studies and client case reports.
Each type of report has its own specific structural format and convention; and report writing is an important skill for students to master in their discipline.
The structure of a typical report will be divided into a number of sections, with specific information required in section. Two examples are:
Table 3: Report structure
Business Report Research Report
Executive summary Abstract
A Presentation is the process of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience. Presentations may be given by individuals or as a group and can take many forms including formal speeches, presenting a product, debates and conference presentations. The audience for assessing a presentation can be members of the teaching team, course convenor, tutors, students (see peer assessment) or industry professionals.
Presentations may be given in an entirely oral fashion, or more commonly, supported by visual aids such as power points, posters, hand outs, white boards etc. The assessment of presentations is usually divided into two parts:
assessment of the oral presentation skills; and
assessment of the use of visual aids.
A journal (or learning logs, learning diary) is a personal record; usually used to help students to record, think about and develop their own learning. As such it is not just a diary or record of 'What you have done' but a record of what has been learnt, tried and critically reflected upon.
For it to be truly effective, it must be used on a regular basis and will contain conclusions about how what has been learnt is relevant; and how the student plans to use the new information/knowledge/skill/technique in the future.
Student portfolios are collections of student work that typically show progress and achievements over time. Student portfolios can take many forms and frequently include self assessment or reflective elements.
A case study is usually the account of a real life event, subject or experience (or it can be entirely hypothetical). The case study may be a political incident, a patient's medical records, an event in history, a technical drawing. It is an authentic representation that provides students with the opportunity to explore and apply skills and theories, acting as a bridge between theory and practice.
Students are required to analyse the case and provide their personal evaluation and/or responses via a written or verbal report.
A performance is the act or art of performing, and assessment of performance skills is used in disciplines such as music and drama. Music students may be required to give an instrumental performance to demonstrate evidence of their learning against such criteria as instrumental technique, instrumental tone, rhythmic accuracy and tempo. Drama students may be required to give a short dramatic performance to demonstrate their ability to perform a particular 'style' and be assessed against criteria such as vocal dynamics, movement dynamic sand timing.
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