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I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей





UNIT 7.STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS! 155


 


considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. 3. For moving smaller volumes of people and freight, hydraulic elevators are used. 4. After hardening, the floor surface is machine polished to expose the marble chips. 5. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar joist, a standard truss made with angles for the top and bottom chords, joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod. 6. The concept of a statically determinate structure — that is, a structure whose forces could be determined from Newton's laws of motion alone — was set forth by Otto Mohr in 1874, after having been used intuitively for perhaps 40 years.

9. Use the Gerund of the verbs in brackets. Define the functions
of the Gerund and translate their sentences.

1. The government created companies that employed people in (to build) dams and roads, houses and parks. 2. We knew nothing about his (to have been sent) to New York. 3. There is a big difference between (build) a house and (design) a computer system. 4. Building is the process of (construct) buildings as distinct from the art or science of (design) buildings, which is architecture.

5. Some or all the joints between the beams and columns are rigidly joined together by (weld) the steel or (pour) the concrete in situ.

6. They began (talk) about the state of the building market.

7. (Load) heavy weights requires great skill. 8. He is proud of (have won) in the chess tournament. 9. In (proportion) the mix, the aggregates are graded in size. 10. Asbestos is capable of (withstand) very high temperatures, and at the same time (deflect) heat. 11. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar joist, a standard truss made with angles on the top and bottom chords, joined by (weld) to a web of a continuous bent rod.

10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention
to the verbal noun.

Example

There are three turnings to the right.


My sister does thecooking in the house. Themaking of concreteis difficult. The meat will be fine with slowcooking. Thiswriting is hard to read. I have done someshopping this morning.

1. In industrialized countries the mixing and delivery of liquid concrete to building sites have been mechanized. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. 2. The program focuses on the understanding of construction technology, construction management and production management processes. 3. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires some thickening of the slab around the columns. 4. It is now very difficult to find cheap housing for rent. 5. Wall sheathing, usually a plywood or other laminate, is usually applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold. 6. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam. 7. Lintels are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. 8. The coming of the industrial age marked a major change in the role of the building engineer.

11. Find the sentences in which the -ing form is a) a verbal noun or b) a gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The piles are put in place by driving them into the ground with large mechanical hammers. 2. The development of bronze, and later iron, technology in this period led to the making of metal tools for working wood, such as axes and saws. 3. The drawings were erased during the final finishing of the wall surfaces. 4. Portland cement is easily manufactured by burning shale and limestone.

5. Openings were cut through the framing and sheathing as required.

6. The average waiting time for an elevator between pressing the call button and arrival must be less than 30 seconds in an office






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