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Replace the underlined words with the words below.




a) carry out b) techniques c) utilize

d) retain e) accurate f) sway

g) emerge h) behave i) services
j) collapse

1. A great amount of effort is spent on the correct application of formulas. 2. Research in the field progressed the general understanding of how steel beams act under single and combined loads. 3. They regularly perform urgent repairs of construction equipment at this plant. 4. This bridge can fall down under the weight of the train. 5. Design professionals and builders should work in an integrated process in order to specify and make use of materials in a manner that will reduce or eliminate waste. 6. Some cracks in beams can appear during construction. 7. During recent years an interesting change has been gradually brought about in the various methods of building construction employed in Russia. 8. The pipes and cables which penetrate the floor/ceiling system must incorporate an approved fire stopping system or must be enclosed in fire resisting shafts. 9. What is the legal temperature a building must keep in the winter in this area? 10. They developed some methods for testing structures permitted to move to and fro.


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Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


UNrr 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING


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Read and translate the following groups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the same form. They can have similar or different meanings. Look up your dictionary if necessary.

1. a. He is familiar with building construction terms.

b. The contract specifies the terms of employment.

c. She thought of everything in terms of money.

2. a. I know how to convert Fahrenheit to the centigrade scale.
b. Scale the old paint from the ceiling.

с I am looking for a large-scale map.

3. a. He usually deals with such problems effectively, b. This book deals with the life of V.G. Shukhov. с The company deals in building materials.

4. a. The company wants to hire a safe driver, b. Put your valuables in the safe.

с They created safe working conditions at the plant.

5. a. They gave me an advance of a month's pay.

b. He did his job in advance.

c. Не could advance a new theory.

Study the following patterns showing the ways some verbs are formed from adjectives or nouns. Complete the charts. Some of the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation.

Pattern 26

Adjective/Noun + -en—> Verb

Example, broad — широкий -»broaden — расширять


Adjective/Noun Verb

strength--------------------------------------

length----------------------------------------

wide------------------------------------- ■

weak

quick----------------------------------------

Pattern 27

Adjective/Noun + -ate-> Verb

Example: motive — мотив —> motivate — мотивировать

Adjective/Noun Verb

regular ------------------------

active ------------------------

stimulus ------------------------

origin orchestra

Pattern 28

Adjective/Noun + -ise/-ize-> Verb

Example: special — специальный -> specialize— специализи­роваться

Adjective/Noun Verb

formal

modern ______________

industrial


I Английский язык для студентов строительных


Специальностей


UNIT 8.STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 175


 


computer summary

Pattern 29

Adjective/Noun + -ify/-fy-> Verb

Example: diverse - разнообразный -» diversify - разнооб­разить

 

 

 

 

Adjective/Noun Verb  
pure    
simple    
specific    
intense    
    SECTION 2  
m    
GRAMMAR  

8. Read and translate the following sentences with one (ones) used as indefinite pronouns meaning everyone/anyone and as substitution words. Use your dictionary if necessary.

Example

One should be careful when crossing the street. — Следует быть осторожным при переходе через улицу.

I don't have a pen. I must buy one. — У меня нет ручки. Я должен купить ручку.



1. Sometimes one can find bricks of a much larger size than a normal one. 2. One can't learn English in a month. 3. Concrete


structural frames have the advantage of costing less than steel ones, but they must usually be reinforced by steel to carry loads. 4. One can't get a driving licence until one is eighteen. 5. Most gardens, even small ones, have flowers and a lawn. 6. Currently, the main distinction which causes one to speak of computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) rather than computer-aided design (CAD) lies in the domain knowledge (architecture-specific objects, techniques, data, and process support) embedded in the system. 7. One should know the difference between civil engineering and building engineering. 8. People thinking of buying a house ask a realtor to show them several houses. When they decide on one, they discuss the price with the people who are selling it. 9. In early times the only large buildings were communal ones such as granaries and places of worship for their gods. 10. "Is it easy to go camping in the country?" — "Yes, but one is not allowed to camp where one likes. One can only use camp-sites."

9. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning and uses of that (those).

Example

Give me that pencil {those pencils), please. — Дайте мне, пожалуйста, тот карандаш {те карандаши).

The price of gold is higher than that o/silver. — Цена на золо­то выше цены серебра.

The fax that arrived in the morning is in your file. — Факс, который прибыл утром, находится в вашей папке.

I think that he is right. — Я думаю, что он прав.

1. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th centuries the professional structural engineer came into existence. 2. Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent of that of a solid wall. 3. The second system is deep structure which means that the operations performed by the computer have natural limitations. 4. Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures






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