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The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of purpose


1. After the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, so.


Exercise 1. Analyze the sentences and translate them into Russian.


1. “I like to be close to the stage,” said Sandy, “so that I can see the actors’ faces.” 2. He asked Teddy to stop the car so that he and Julie could get out. 3. Once or twice he gave Tom considerable sums in order that he might make a fresh start. 4. She usually bore her head high so that men should not see her double chin. 5. I shall send a scout to reconnoitre so that we can find out what the enemy soldiers are doing. 6. She opens the window every morning so that the children may get some fresh air. 7. She knew that Billy preferred to go and stand at the gate so that he could be the first to board the plane. 8. Mother is sending the children to have their refreshments first, so that we’ll have the table to ourselves. 9. The woman, seeing the girl, moved to the other side of her son so that not even a glance should pass between them. 10. I closed the door so that we might not be overheard. 11. I’ve made a copy for you so that there should be no doubts. 12. He spoke loudly and clearly so that he be heard. 13. Take your gloves with you in case it should get colder. 14. Take your gloves with you in case it gets colder. 15. I told him everything that he could have all the information he might need to make up his mind. 16. You’ll have to give him a hand in order that he may cope with all his responsibilities. 17. Let him come in here, so that he can hear what I have to say. 18. As you go, leave the door open so that the light from the lamp may show you some of the way down. 19. I turned away so that Fred should not see my face. 20. Get Martin in here so that he can hear what I have to say.


Exercise 2. Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets:


1. He held a guarded conversation for fear that she (to take) additional offence. 2. He gave Stella another glance, from the corner of his eye, so that she (not to see) he was looking at her. 3. Then she went over to the captain and leaned over him so that she (to speak) into his ear. 4. This committee is investigating various spheres of life so that it (to gather) full information. 5. She strained herself to speak louder, so that he (to hear). 6. You ought to hear it from his own lips so that you (to judge). 7. I went to the desk and asked for my key so that I (to go) straight up to my room. 8. Uncle Nick’s effects had to be moved out of his room so that it (to re-let). 9. He waded out cautiously, so that he (not to trip) against a coral rock. 10. He carefully took note of the furniture in the room so that he (not to knock) against a chair or a table in the dark and (to make) a noise. 11. She was arranging apples on the counter so that the spots (not to show). 12. I had a book hidden in the barn, so that I (to read) without fear of being caught. 13. I took her to a theatre, so that we (to get) back home late enough. 14. They drove with the windows closed so that they (not to catch) cold. 15. I was waiting until you came so that we (to eat) together. 16. She sent a message to some friends asking them to look in so that she (not to be) alone with Ed in the evening. 17. The boy hurried his meal so that he (to go) out to play. 18. He was very careful with his books so that they (to last) longer. 19. She pulled the curtains back so that more daylight (to spill) into the room.


Exercise 3. Paraphrase the following sentences according to the pattern.


Pattern: I left a note on the table to remind you about the call, (so that) I left a note on the table so that it should (might) remind you about the call.


1. I took twenty driving lessons to pass my driving test first time. (so that) 2. We arrived at the cinema early so as not to miss the beginning of the film. (so that) 3. We stood up in order to get a better view of what was going on. (that) 4. Mr. Jones bought a second car for his wife to learn to drive. (so that) 5. I’m going to sign the agreement immediately. You might change your mind. (in case) 6. Take this key with you. You might not be able to get into the house. (in case) 7. I’m going to take my passport with me. I might need it. (in case) 8. Go by train. There might be a lot of traffic or the road. (in case) 9. I spoke slowly and clearly because I wanted the audience to understand. (so that) 10. Put on your coat. It might get pretty cold in the evening. (in case) 11. He saved money for his family to go to Europe in summer. (so that) 12. They kept her in the dark because they to avoid trouble. (in order that) 13. She went downstairs quietly so as not to draw attention. (in order that) 14. David thought of a potential economy. He told his secretary about it because he wanted her to work it out on the calculator. (that) 15. They tried to placate the mob as they didn’t want the trouble to break out again. (so that) 16. He stepped back for her to see every thing better. (that)


Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences adding a principal clause or a subordinate clause of purpose.


1. He came earlier than he had promised so that... 2....so that the children should not touch the stove. 3. I’m hurrying to the institute in order that... 4. All the participants were officially warned lest... 5....in order that they might be able to discuss the matter alone. 6. The teacher told them the marks and showed the papers so that... 7....so that the pupils could see what was written on the blackboard. 8. I shall close the door so that... 9....that I can work till late at night. 10. Give me your pen for a moment, so...


Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Он решил выйти из дому заранее, с тем, чтобы мы встретились около станции. 2. Я произнесу его фамилию по буквам, чтобы вы её правильно записали. 3. Говорите громче и яснее, чтобы все вас слышали в заднем ряду. 4. Она рассказала нам о своих впечатлениях, чтобы мы поняли, что она чувствует. 5. Лектор говорил медленно, для того чтобы мы могли записать основные мысли. 6. Преподаватель будет давать вам консультации, чтобы вы повторили весь материал к экзамену. 7. Я упомянул все детали, чтобы меня правильно поняли. 8. Зажгите свет, чтобы мы все могли посмотреть фотографии. 9. Учитель объяснил правило ещё раз, чтобы всё было ясно. 10. Я сообщаю вам об этих изменениях для того, чтобы вы ещё раз обдумали моё предложение. 11. Зажгите настольную лампу, чтобы вам было удобнее работать. 12. Полицейские обошли всех соседей, чтобы узнать, не слышали ли они чего-нибудь. 13. Этот знак поставлен здесь для того, чтобы все обратили внимание на опасность. 14. Я сообщаю тебе обо всех этих вещах, чтобы мы могли понять друг друга. 15. Он велел нам сесть на заднее сиденье машины, чтобы мы могли поговорить. 16. Девочка не закрывала окно ни днем, ни ночью, чтобы кошка могла приходить к ней в комнату, когда той вздумается. 17. Мы пошли погулять, чтобы я мог увидеть лес до того, как стемнеет. 18. Он отошел в сторону от театральной кассы, чтобы я мог поговорить с кассиром. 19. Позвони мне, когда ты будешь выезжать, чтобы я знал, когда ждать тебя. 20. Она дала мне ключ, чтобы я мог открыть дверь. 21. Грейс предприняла необходимые меры, чтобы они могли пожениться сразу же.


2. After the negative conjunction lest.


Exercise 6. Explain the use of the verb forms in the following clauses of purpose. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. George stood up lest anyone should see him lying there in his evening clothes. 2. I’ve made a copy for you lest there should be any doubts. 3. He took a taxi lest he be late again. 4. Reread this phrase lest you should make the same mistake again. 5. We dilute the acid lest it be too strong. 6. They set a strong guard lest anyone should escape. 7. He met their stares for a few seconds, and then risked another glance to the right, cautiously, lest they should guess his plan. 8. Don’t expose hydrogen peroxide to the air, lest it should decompose.


Exercise 7. Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets in the following clauses of purpose:


1. Then he made his escape, lest she (to have time). 2. He left the violin in the hall lest it (to seem) that he wanted to be asked to play. 3. And he abruptly turned away lest Jill (to see) the tears in his eyes. 4. An access of joy made him shut his eyes lest tears (to flow) from them. 5. She tried to sit still lest he (to notice) her presence there. 6. They were feeling their way lest they (to fall) in the ditch in that inky darkness. 7. She swallowed hurriedly the last piece of cake lest anybody (to see) her eating that horrid stuff. 8. She pretended to sleep lest her parents (to realize) the fact that she had heard everything and might have got her own opinion about the events taking place there.


Exercise 8. Paraphrase the following sentences according to the pattern.

Pattern: I left a note on the table to remind you about the call. (lest) I left a note on the table lest you should remember about the call.


1. We arrived at the cinema early so as not to miss the beginning of the film. (lest) 2. They kept her in the dark because they wanted to avoid trouble. (lest) 3. She went downstairs quietly so as not to draw attention. (lest) 4. They tried to placate the mob as they didn’t want the trouble to break out again. (lest) 5. I pretended to be reading for my exams as I didn’t want to be persuaded to clean my room. (lest) 6. He suggested going there immediately as he didn’t want to be late for the meeting. (lest) 7. The child hid the stolen toy-car under the bed as he didn’t want his parents to find it. (lest) 8. They ran away as they didn’t want the police to find them near the broken cars. (lest) 9. Tom pretended that he didn’t see anything as he didn’t want his new acquaintance to feel embarrassed. (lest) 10. The criminal tried to escape as he did not want to be hanged for such a cruel murder. (lest)


Exercise 9. Make up your own dialogues according to the pattern.



- If you hadn’t misplaced that weed killer, I wouldn’t have had to look for it for hours. - I only did it lest the children should find it.


Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Мы торопились в контору, чтобы управляющий не ушел. 2. Смотрите под ноги, чтобы не упасть. 3. Закройте дверь, чтобы не было сквозняка. 4. Она отвернулась, чтобы никто не заметил, что она плакала. 5. Ей пришлось вмешаться в их спор, чтобы они не поругались окончательно. 6. Услышав, что Питер возвращается, Джил положила конверт на место и закрыла ящик стола (a drawer), чтобы он не заметил, что она что-то искала. 7. Уберите отсюда эту сумку, чтобы кто-нибудь не споткнулся. 8. Они спорили шёпотом, чтобы дети не узнали об их размолвке. 9. Ему пришлось повторить стихотворение ещё раз, чтобы не забыть его. 10. Тим просил тщательно завернуть вазу, чтобы она не разбилась. 11. Он притворился, что разговаривает с кем-то, чтобы слуга не подумал, что ой один в комнате. 12. Она снизила голос, чтобы ее мать не услышала нас.



Exercise 11. Complete the following sentences according to the pattern.


1. They locked the door (to get in).

They locked the door lest somebody get in/ should get in.

2. I turned down the music (to concentrate). I turned down the music so that my brother might concentrate on his studies.


1. Everyone was pushing (to get in front of the queue). 2. Try to write clearly (to avoid being misunderstood). 3. He left the car in the road (to keep it out of sight). 4. He sat in the furthest comer (to be seen). 5. I’ve got the key (to want to go inside). 6. She said she wanted tea ready at six (to be out by ten). 7. He lifted his son to his shoulder (to see the procession). 8. Holes should be fenced (to fall down them). 9. I have drawn a diagram (to be clearer). 10. He used both hands (to drop anything). 11. We covered the furniture (to get paint over it). 12. We spoke quietly (to disturb anyone). 13. I had to turn away (to see my smile). 14. I’ve underlined all the new words (to forget to look them up). 15. They employed a firm of Management Consultants (to assess the company).


Exercise 12. Complete the following sentences using adverbial clauses of purpose.


1. We took a taxi... 2. They telephoned the manager... 3. He concentrated on his work... 4. She practises every day... 5. You must find a good dentist... 6. They never punish their children... 7. I put a notice there... 8. They slowed down the investigation... 9. He took great risks... 10. He had an ansaphone installed in his study... 11. The company commissioned a computer expert... 12. Don’t hold back your views... 13. He sent his son to a prep-school... 14. Change your approach... 15. Come closer....


Exercise 13. Match the half-sentences and connect them, using the following conjunctions: lest, so that, in case


1. Many people want to be pop stars A female fans should become


2. But the Spice Boys don’t disguise В someone should try to come in.

when they go out

3. One group singer goes around in С fans should recognize them.

a Mickey Mouse mask

4. They always lock their bedroom D nobody should be able to guess

doors at night who he is.

5. They never announce their E no one should know where immediate plans they’re heading.

6. Girlfriends are out of the question F they should read a bad review.

7. They’re not allowed to read G people will recognize them in

the papers the street.


Exercise 14. Reword the following sentences turning the infinitive phrases into clauses of purpose:


1. The nurse stepped around for the doctor to see the man’s wound. 2. I want to go to London for my wife to see the play. 3. I know he’ll come home for us to have dinner together. 4. Shall I ring for the maid to clear these things away? 5. He spoke loudly and clearly for all to hear. 6. I’m telling you this for you to write home about. 7. He kept the gate closed for the cows not to get into the garden. 8. She left the room for little Emma to sleep quietly. 9. She rang off for her mother not to know whom she had been talking to. 10. He left a book here for me to look over. 11. He was plucking early roses for her to carry back to town. 12. She told all sorts of lies for her children not to hate their father.


Exercise 15. Revision: translate the following into English using the appropriate verb forms in adverbial clauses:


1. Если вдруг возникнет какая-нибудь трудность, позвони мне тотчас же. 2. Он улыбался, как будто не верил тому, что я говорил. 3. Запри дверь, чтобы нам никто не мешал. 4. Девочка сидела тихо, сложив руки на коленях, словно она смотрела телевизор. 5. Для нас было бы лучше, если бы мы никогда не встретились. 6. Он говорил о книге, как будто он ее читал. 7. Я оставил ему записку на столе, чтобы он ее увидел сразу же, как только он вернется. 8. Он не сказал ни слова, как будто он не слышал, что мы разговаривали о нем. 9. Если бы не ты, я не знаю, что бы я сделал. 10. Повесь объявление повыше, чтобы всем было видно. 11. Если бы не дедушка, мальчик был бы очень несчастлив дома. 12. Она записала название книги, чтобы я мог спросить ее в библиотеке. 13. Он сказал то, что другие тоже могли бы сказать, если бы они были откровенны. 14. Пол в комнате был такой пыльный, словно его не мели несколько дней. 15. Он был бы более счастливым человеком, если бы он остался в своей деревне. 16. Он улыбнулся и похлопал ее по плечу, словно она ребенок. 17. Он чувствовал, что если бы он отказался от этого предложения, отец рассердился бы на него. 18. Я надела шляпу, чтобы не подниматься наверх еще раз. 19. Она даже намекнула, что если бы они встретились 10 лет назад, когда им было по двадцать лет, все могло бы сложиться иначе.





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